Figure 108

Tubular markers in cadmium workers. Impairment of renal proximal tubular epithelium induced by cadmium can be documented by an increase in urinary excretion of urinary neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP), an enzyme of the proximal tubule brush borders, as well as by an increase in microproteinuria: Clara cell protein (CC16), retinol-binding protein (RBP) and ^-microglobulin (^-m). The data were obtained from 106 healthy persons working in cadmium smelting plants. These markers could be used for the screening of cadmium workers. (Adapted from Nortier and coworkers [6].)

Lithium nephropathy

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