Figure 1110

On the one hand, indications exist that apoptosis is increased in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (eg, increased Fas expression and increased in vitro apoptosis). On the other hand, some findings suggest that apoptosis is decreased (eg, increased levels of soluble Fas, increased bcl-2 expression, and decreased anti-CD3-induced apoptosis). Bcl-2 is a physiologic inhibitor of apoptosis, and transgenic induction of bcl-2 overexpression leads to lupuslike autoimmunity [27]. Although presently it is difficult to reconcile these findings, it is clear that changes in the delicate balances governing apoptosis can lead to apoptosis at the wrong moment (too late) or at the wrong place (systemically instead of locally).

Chromatin

Chromatin

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