Figure 1111

Risk factors for development of amphotericin B (AmB) nephrotoxic-ity. Nephrotoxicity of AmB is a major problem associated with clinical use of this important drug. Disturbances in both glomerular and tubule function are well described. The nephrotoxic effect of AmB is initially a distal tubule phenomenon, characterized by a loss of urine concentration, distal renal tubule acidosis, and wasting of potassium and magnesium, but it also causes renal vasoconstriction leading to renal ischemia. Initially, the drug binds to membrane sterols in the renal vasculature and epithelial cells, altering its membrane permeability. AmB-induced vasoconstriction and ischemia to very vulnerable sections of the nephron, such as medullary thick ascending limb, enhance the cell death produced by direct toxic action of AmB on those cells. This explains the salutary effect on AmB nephrotoxicity of salt loading, furosemide, theophylline, or calcium channel blockers, all of which improve renal blood flow or inhibit transport in the medullary thick ascending limb.

Indication for amphotericin B therapy

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