Figure 1113

The value of the analysis of lupus glomerulonephritis according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification for prognosis and treatment can be enhanced by including indices of activity and chronicity. These indices were proposed in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) index [49]. The extent of the active and chronic lesions is assessed according to the scoring system here. A chronici-ty index of 3 or higher and an activity index of 12 or higher are associated with a significantly greater risk for the development of end-stage renal disease [14].

Scoring per item from 0 to 3; for parameters with asterisks, the score is doubled.

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