Figure 1122

Incidence of renal manifestations and serologic abnormalities in the different forms of lupus nephritis. The clinical manifestations of lupus nephritis are not different from other forms of glomerulonephritis and include a nephritic sediment (dysmorphic erythrocytes and erythrocyte casts), proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome, impaired renal function, and hypertension. Although certain clinical manifestations are more prevalent in certain forms (nephrotic syndrome for World Health Organization (WHO)

class V, nephritic sediment for WHO class IV), it is clear that on the basis of clinical symptoms it is not possible to classify the form of nephritis correctly. This inability underlines the necessity for obtaining a renal biopsy specimen. In addition, listed are the occurrence of both a positive result on performing a Farr assay and a low complement 3 level for the different forms of lupus nephritis. Anti-dsDNA— anti-double-stranded DNA. (Adapted from Appel et al. [50]).

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