Figure 118

Causes of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Though SIADH is the commonest cause of hyponatremia in hospitalized patients, it is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is characterized by a defect in osmoregulation of ADH in which plasma ADH levels are not appropriately suppressed for the degree of hypotonicity, leading to urine concentration by a variety of mechanisms. Most of these fall into one of three categories (ie, malignancies, pulmonary diseases, central nervous system disorders) [14].

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