Figure

Volume determinants of arterial pressure. The two major determinants of arterial pressure, cardiac output and total peripheral resistance, are regulated by a combination of short- and long-term mechanisms. Rapidly adjusting mechanisms regulate peripheral vascular resistance, cardiovascular capacitance, and cardiac performance. These mechanisms include the neural and humoral mechanisms listed. On a long-term basis, cardiac output is determined by venous return, which is regulated primarily by the mean circulatory pressure. The mean circulatory pressure depends on blood volume and overall cardiovascular capacitance. Blood volume is closely linked to extracellular fluid (ECF) volume and sodium balance, which are dependent on the integration of net intake and net losses [13]. (Adapted from Navar [3].)

Arterial baroreflexes Atrial reflexes

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone Adrenal catecholamines Vasopressin Natriuretic peptides Endothelial factors: nitric oxide, endothelin kallikrein-kinin system Prostaglandins and other eicosanoids

(Autoregulation)

Heart rate and contractility

Arterial baroreflexes Atrial reflexes

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone Adrenal catecholamines Vasopressin Natriuretic peptides Endothelial factors: nitric oxide, endothelin kallikrein-kinin system Prostaglandins and other eicosanoids

Neurohumoral systems

(Autoregulation)

0 0

Post a comment