Figure 135

Types and distribution of malignancies among renal transplant recipients in the current era of cyclosporine use. In these patients the risk of malignancy is increased approximately fourfold when compared with the general population [8]. Malignancies likely to be encountered in the transplantation recipient differ from those most common in the general population [9,10]. Lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoma may evolve as a consequence of viral infections. Women are at an increased risk for cervical carcinoma, again related to infection (human papilloma virus). Surprisingly, the solid tumors most commonly seen in the general population (eg, of the breast, lung, colon, and prostate) do not occur with significantly greater frequency among transplant recipients. Nonetheless, long-term care of these patients should involve standard screening for these malignancies at appropriate intervals. (From Penn [9]; with permission.)

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