Figure 14

Simplified schematic of typical hemodialysis system. In hemodialysis, blood from the patient is circulated through a synthetic extracorporeal membrane and returned to the patient. The opposite side of that membrane is washed with an electrolyte solution (dialysate) containing the normal constituents of plasma water. The apparatus contains a blood pump to circulate the blood through the system, proportioning pumps that mix a concentrated salt solution with water purified by reverse osmosis and/or deionization to produce the dialysate, a means of removing excess fluid from the blood (mismatching dialysate inflow and outflow to the dialysate compartment), and a series of pressure, conductivity, and air embolus monitors to protect the patient. Dialysate is warmed to body temperature by a heater.

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