Figure 1431

Algorithm for evaluation of kidney transplantation hydronephrosis [9]. The generally accepted criterion for exclusion of upper urinary tract obstruction is a washing out of half of the radioisotope from the renal pelvis in less than 10 minutes. Obstruction is considered to be present when this value is over 20 minutes. Percutaneous nephrostomy allows anatomic definition of the obstruction and temporary drainage of the hydronephrotic kidney. A generally accepted criterion for the diagnosis of obstruction with the percutaneous pressure-flow Whitaker test is fluid infusion into the pelvis at the rate of 10 mL/min, resulting in a renal pelvic pressure over 20 cm H2O.

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