Figure 16

Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) chemical standards for water for hemodialysis. Before hemodialysis can be performed, water analysis is performed. Water for hemodialysis generally requires reverse osmosis treatment and a deionizer for "polishing" the water. Organic materials, chlorine, and chloramine are removed by charcoal filtration. (From Vlchek [2]; with permission.)

Colony-forming units/mL

Dialysis water


Prepared dialysate


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