Figure 1614

Kidney morphogenesis. Schematics demonstrate the development of the ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme during kidney organogenesis. During embryogenesis, mutual inductive events between the metanephric mesenchyme and the ureteric bud give rise to primordial structures that differentiate and fuse to form functional nephrons [74-76]. Although the process has been described morphologically, the nature and identity of molecules involved in the signaling and regulation of these events remain unclear. A, Diagram of branching tubulogenesis of the ureteric bud during kidney organogenesis. The ureteric bud is induced by the metanephric mesenchyme to branch and elongate to form the urinary collecting system [74-76]. B, Model of cellular events involved in ureteric bud branching. To branch and elongate, the ureteric bud must digest its way through its own basement membrane, a highly complicated complex of extracellular matrix proteins. It is believed that this is accomplished by cellular projections, "invadopodia," which allow for localized sites of proteolytic activity at their tips [77-81]. C, Mesenchymal cell compaction. The metanephric mesenchyme not only induces ureteric bud branching but is also induced by the ureteric bud to epithelialize and differentiate into the proximal through distal tubule [74-76]. (From Stuart and Nigam [80] and Stuart et al. [81]; with permission.)

Basic research

Renal development

Tubulogenesis in vitro

Renal injury and repair

Urogenital abnormalities


Artificial kidneys

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