Figure 164

Voiding cystourethrogram in a child with posterior urethral valves showing gross dilation of the posterior urethra with an abrupt change in caliber at the level of the external sphincter. Obstructive uropathy is reported to be the cause of end-stage renal disease in 16.5% of pediatric transplantation recipients (the primary cause along with aplastic, hypoplastic, and dys-plastic kidneys) in the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study 1995 Annual Report. (Courtesy of Philip Silberberg, MD.)

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