Figure 166

ATP depletion causes disruption of tight junctions. Diagram of the changes induced in tight junction structure by ATP depletion. ATP depletion causes the cytoplasmic tight junction proteins zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) and ZO-2 to form large insoluble complexes, probably in association with the cytoskeletal protein fodrin [12], though aggregation may also be significant. Furthermore, occludin, the transmembrane protein of the tight junction, becomes localized to the cell interior, probably in membrane vesicles. These kinds of studies have begun to provide insight into the biochemical basis of tight junction disruption after ATP depletion, although how the tight junction reassembles during recovery of epithelial cells from ischemic injury remains unclear.

Low calcium (LC)

Low calcium (LC)

Calcium switch (NC)

Calcium switch (NC)

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