Figure 1821

Micronutrients in acute renal failure (ARF): fat-soluble vitamins (A, E, K). Despite the fact that fat-soluble vitamins are not lost during hemodialysis and hemofiltration, plasma concentrations of vitamins A and E are depressed in patients with ARF and requirements are increased [44]. Plasma concentrations of vitamin K (with broad variations of individual values) are normal in ARF. Most commercial multivitamin preparations for parenteral infusions contain the recommended daily allowances of vitamins and can safely be used in ARF patients. (From Druml et al. [44]; with permission.)

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