Schematic diagram of neural connections important in circulatory control. Although the system is bilaterally symmetric, afferent fibers are shown to the left and efferent fibers to the right. Sympathetic fibers are shown as solid lines and parasympathetic fibers as dashed lines. The heart receives both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation. Sympathetic fibers lead to vasoconstriction and renal sodium chloride retention. X indicates the vagus nerve; IX indicates glossopharyngeal. (From Korner ; with permission.)
Normal effective arterial volume
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