Figure 217

Mechanisms and regulation of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) transport by the distal nephron. As in other nephron segments, intracellular Na concentration is maintained low by the action of the Na-K ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase) pump at the basolateral cell membrane. Na enters distal convoluted tubule (DCT) cells across the luminal membrane coupled directly to chloride by way of the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter. Activity of the Na-Cl cotransporter appears to be stimulated by both aldosterone and angiotensin II (AII) [38-40]. Transepithelial Na transport in this segment is also stimulated by sympathetic nerves acting by way of a receptors [41,42]. The DCT is impermeable to water.

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