The medium-sized vasculitides are confined to arteries by the definitions of the Chapel Hill Nomenclature System [3,6]. By this approach the presence of evidence for involvement of vessels smaller than arteries (ie, capillaries, venules, arterioles), such as glomerulonephritis, purpura, or pulmonary hemorrhage, would point away from these diseases and toward one of the small vessel vasculitides. Both polyarteritis nodosa and Kawasaki disease cause acute necrotizing arteritis that may be complicated by thrombosis and hemorrhage. The presence of mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome distinguishes Kawasaki disease from polyarteritis nodosa.
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