Figure 310

Concentration of dialysate in high-efficiency dialysis. Although the concentration of other ions is variable, high bicarbonate concentration, relative to that of acetate, is essential for high-efficiency dialysis in order to minimize the transfer of acetate into the patient.

Type of access Native arteriovenous fistulae, polytetrafluoroethyl-ene grafts, twin catheter systems: high blood flow rate, >350 mL/min Permanent catheters, temporary intravenous catheters: low blood flow rate, <350 mL/min Needle design: size, thickness, and length Blood tubing Pump design

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