Figure 311

Factors influencing blood flow in high-efficiency hemodialysis. Arteriovenous fistulae often have blood flow rates of over 1000 mL/min, as measured by current noninvasive devices. Polytetrafluoroethylene grafts and the newly introduced twin catheter systems also are capable of providing the blood flow rates necessary for high-efficiency hemodialysis. In contrast, most other temporary or semipermanent catheters cannot provide sufficient blood flow reliably enough for adequate dialysis delivery in a short time period. Needles, blood tubing diameter, and blood pumps may also contribute to this problem [8,9].

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