Extrarenal potassium homeostasis: insulin and catecholamines. Schematic representation of the cellular mechanisms by which insulin and ^-adrenergic stimulation promote potassium uptake by extrarenal tissues. Insulin binding to its receptor results in hyperpo-larization of cell membranes (1), which facilitates potassium uptake. After binding to its receptor, insulin also activates Na+-K+-ATPase pumps, resulting in cellular uptake of potassium (2). The second messenger that mediates this effect has not yet been identified. Catecholamines stimulate cellular potassium uptake via the | adrenergic receptor (I2R). The generation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (3', 5' cAMP) activates Na+-K+-ATPase pumps (3), causing an influx of potassium in exchange for sodium [10]. By inhibiting the degradation of cyclic AMP, theophylline potentiates catecholamine-stimulated potassium uptake, resulting in hypokalemia (4).

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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