Figure 340

Comorbidity in patients undergoing renovascular surgery. Patients presenting for renovascular surgery or endovascular renal revascu-larization are at high-risk for complications during intervention because of age, and frequently associated coronary, cerebrovascular, or peripheral vascular disease. As the population ages, the percentage of patients being considered for interventive maneuvers on the renal artery has increased significantly. Approximately 30% of patients currently undergoing interventive approaches to renal artery disease have angina, or have had a previous myocardial infarction. Congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease (eg, carotid artery stenosis), diabetes mellitus, and claudication are frequent comorbid conditions in these patients. Their aortas are often laden with extensive atherosclerotic plaque (Fig. 3-33), making angiographic investigation or endovascular renal revascularization hazardous. (Adapted from Hallet and coworkers [17]; with permission.)

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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