Figure 413

The causes of magnesium (Mg) depletion. Depletion of Mg can develop as a result of low intake or increased losses by way of the gastrointestinal tract, the kidneys, or other routes [1,2,8-13].

Renal magnesium (Mg) wasting Thiazides(?)

Volume expansion

• Osmotic diuresis

Glucose Mannitol Urea

• Diuretic phase acute renal failure*

• Post obstructive diuresis

• Hypercalcemia*

• Phosphate depletion*

• Chronic renal disease*

• Renal transplant*

• Interstitial nephritis*

Renal magnesium (Mg) wasting Thiazides(?)

Tubular defects

Bartter's syndrome Gitelman's syndrome Renal tubular acidosis Medullary calcinosis

Drugs/toxins

Cis-platinum Amphotericin B Cyclosporine Pentamidine ? Aminoglycosides* Foscarnet (?ATN) Ticarcillin/carbenicillin ? Digoxin

Electrolyte imbalances

Hypercalcemia* Phosphate depletion* Metabolic acidosis Starvation Ketoacidosis Alcoholism

Hormonal changes

Hyperaldosteronism

Primary hyperparathyroidism Hyperthyroidism Uncontrolled diabetes

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