Figure 416

Mechanism whereby magnesium (Mg) deficiency could lead to hypertension. Mg deficiency does the following: increases angiotensin II (AII) action, decreases levels of vasodilatory prostaglandins (PGs), increases levels of vasoconstrictive PGs and growth factors, increases vascular smooth muscle cytosolic calcium, impairs insulin release, produces insulin resistance, and alters lipid profile. All of these results of Mg deficiency favor the development of hypertension and atherosclerosis [10,11]. Na+—ionized sodium; 12-HETE—hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic [acid]; TXA2—thromboxane A2. (From Nadler and coworkers [17].)

Normal

Check for nonrenal causes

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