Figure 520

CAUSES OF HYPERCALCEMIA Causes of hypercalcemia (increase in ionized plasma calcium).

CAUSES OF HYPERCALCEMIA Causes of hypercalcemia (increase in ionized plasma calcium).

Excess parathyroid hormone (PTH) production

Increased intestinal absorption of calcium

Primary hyperparathyroidism

Vitamin D intoxication

"Tertiary" hyperparathyroidism*

Milk-alkali syndrome*

Excess 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3)

Decreased renal excretion of calcium

Vitamin D intoxication

Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia

Sarcoidosis and granulomatous diseases

Thiazides

Severe hypophosphatemia

Impaired bone formation and incorporation of

Neoplastic production of 1,25(OH^3 (lymphoma)

calcium

Increased bone resorption

Aluminum intoxication*

Metastatic (osteolytic) tumors (eg, breast, colon, prostate)

Adynamic ("low-turnover") bone disease*

Humoral hypercalcemia

Corticosteroids

PTH-related protein (eg, squamous cell lung, renal

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