Figure 524

Presenting signs and symptoms of renal cell carcinoma. Patients with renal cell cancer present with symptoms produced by the local neoplasm, with signs and symptoms of paraneoplastic phenomena, or with other aspects of systemic disease. Alternatively, the patient may be totally asymptomatic and may be diagnosed from a radiologic abnormality detected on ultrasound or abdominal CT scanning. Fewer than 10% of patients present with the classic triad of hematuria, abdominal mass, and flank pain. The most common features include hematuria (70%), flank pain (50%), palpable mass (20%), fever (15%), and erythrocytosis (infrequent). Other features may include acute onset of lower extremity edema, or, in males, the presence of a left-sided varico-cele, indicating obstruction of the left gonadal vein at its point of entry into the left renal vein by a tumor thrombus [53,54].

0 0

Post a comment