Figure 625

The T-helper1-T-helper 2 (TH1-TH2) cell balance that determines the clinical expression of different parasitic nephropathies. TH1 predominance leads to either reversible acute proliferative glomeru-lonephritis or acute interstitial nephritis. TH2 predominance tends to lessen the severity of the lesions and may lead to chronic glomerulonephritis in the presence of copathogenic factors such as concomitant infection (malaria, schistosomiasis), autoimmunity (malaria, filariasis, schistosomiasis), or immunoglobulin A (IgA) switching (Schistosoma mansoni) [7, 9, 49-52]. CD4—T-helper cells; CD8—cytotoxic cells; 7-INF—7-interferon; IL—interleukin.

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