Figure 712

Cystitis in a female patient. In case of urinary tract infection (UTI), distinguishing between lower and upper tract infection is classical, but the distinction is also beside the point. The real point is to determine whether infection is confined to the bladder mucosa, which is the case in simple cystitis in females, or whether it involves solid organs (ie, prostatitis or pyelonephritis). The dots in this figure symbolize the presence of bacteria and leukocytes (ie, infection) in the relevant organ. Here, infection is confined to the bladder mucosa, which can be severely inflamed and edematous. This could be reflected radiographically by mucosal wrinkling on the cystogram. In some cases inflammation is severe enough to be accompanied by bladder purpura, which induces macroscopic hematuria but is not a particular grave sign.

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