Figure 718

An episode of urinary tract infection (UTI) should prompt consideration of whether it involves a normal urinary tract or, alternatively, if it is a complication of an anatomic malformation. This is especially true of relapsing UTI in both genders, and this hypothesis should be systematically raised in males and in children.

Recurrent cystitis in females can be explained by hymeneal scars that pull open the urethral outlet during intercourse. Although rarely, other malformations that promote recurrent female cystitis are occasionally discovered, such as urethral diverticula (arrows). Finally, it should be recalled that recurrent or chronic cystitis in an older woman can also reveal an unsuspected bladder tumor.

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