Figure 724

When intravenous pyelography discloses two ureters, the one draining the lower pyelocalyceal system crosses the upper ureter and opens into the bladder less obliquely than normally, allowing reflux of urine and explaining repeated attacks of pyelonephritis followed by atrophy of the lower pole of the kidney. Retrograde cystography is indicated for repeated episodes of pyelonephritis and when intravenous pyelog-raphy or computed tomography renal examination discovers cortical scars. In adults, retrograde cystography is obtained by direct catheter-ization of the bladder.

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment