Bacterial uropathogenicity plays a major role in host-pathogen interactions that lead to urinary tract infection (UTI). For Escherichia coli, these factors include flagella necessary for motility, aerobactin necessary for iron acquisition in the iron-poor environment of the urinary tract, a pore-forming hemolysin, and, above all, presence of adhesins on the bacterial fimbriae, as well as on the bacterial cell surface. (From Mobley et al. [7]; with permission.)

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