Figure 76

Hemodynamic response to diuretics. Diuretics reduce mean arterial pressure by their initial natriuretic effect [6]. Acutely, this is achieved by a reduction in cardiac output mediated by a reduction in plasma and extracellular fluid volumes [7]. Initially, peripheral vascular resistance is increased, mediated in part by stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system. During sustained diuretic therapy, cardiac output returns to pretreatment levels, probably reflecting restoration of plasma volume. Chronic blood pressure control now correlates with a reduction in peripheral vascular resistance. BP—blood pressure; CO—cardiac output; ISF—interstitial fluid; PRA—plasma renin activity; PV—plasma volume; Rx—treatment; TPR—total peripheral resistance. (Adapted from Tarazi [7].)

A. DIURETICS: BENZOTHIADIAZIDES (PARTIAL LIST) AND RELATED DIURETICS

Generic (trade) name

First dose, mg

Usual dose

Maximum dose

Duration of action, h

Hydrochlorothiazide (G)

0 0

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