Figure 76

Prevalence of anti-HCV among dialysis patients. Patients receiving dialysis clearly are at greater risk for acquiring hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection than are healthy subjects, based on the seropreva-lence of anti-HCV antibodies among patients with end-stage renal disease. These results of ELISA-1 testing likely underestimate true positivity because studies have demonstrated a nearly twofold increase in seropositivity when screening dialysis patients with the ELISA-2 assay [52]. Additional studies have demonstrated that most patients receiving dialysis who have anti-HCV seropositive test results have circulating HCV RNA by polymerase chain reaction analysis, indicating active viral replication.

Transfusions [24,27,30,32,54-57] Duration of end-stage renal disease

[29,30,32,35,37,53-61] Mode of dialysis [60-70] Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the dialysis unit [71,72]

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