Figure 828

Precipitating condition of acute renal failure (ARF). The initial clinical condition observed in ARF patients is shown. Oliguria: urine output of less than 400 mL per day; hypotension: systolic blood pressure lower than 100 mm Hg for at least 10 hours per day independent of the use of vasoactive drugs; jaundice: serum bilirubin level higher than 2 mg/dL; coma: Glasgow coma score of 5 or less. The presence of these factors is associated with poorer outcome (see Fig. 8-29). (Data from Liano et al. [1].)

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