Figure

Tissue sagittal sections (upper panels) and cystoscopic appearances (lower panels) of the ureterovesical junction illustrating varying submucosal tunnel lengths. The length of the submucosal segment of the distal ureter is an important factor in determining the effectiveness of the ureteral valvular mechanism in preventing vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). In children without VUR, the ratio of tunnel length to ureteral diameter is significantly greater than in children with VUR [5,6]. (From Kramer [7]; with permission.)

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