^Increased tubular pressure

} Tubular obstruction "Back-leak" of glomerular filtrate

Intratubular Functional casts abnormalties

Tubular damage

IntrarenTi factors Persistent medullary hypoxia

Physical constriction * of medullary vessels

Hemodynamic « I Glomerular alterations hydrostatic

^^ pressure

Intrarenal ^

vasoconstriction I Perfusion pressure ^vj \ Efferent tone

Glomerular factors \

\ Afferent tone

\ Afferent tone

Obstruction i

I Glomerular ultrafiltration

Postrenal failure

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