Causes Of Diabetes Insipidus

Causes of diabetes insipidus. The causes of diabetes insipidus can be divided into central and nephrogenic. Most (about 50%) of the central causes are idiopathic; the rest are caused by central nervous system involvement with infection, tumors, granuloma, or trauma. The nephrogenic causes can be congenital or acquired [23].

FIGURE 1-35

Congenital central diabetes insipidus (DI), autosomal-dominant form. This condition has been described in many families in Europe and North America. It is an autosomal dominant inherited disease associated with marked loss of cells in the supraoptic nuclei. Molecular biology techniques have revealed multiple point mutations in the vasopressin-neurophysin II gene. This condition usually presents early in life [25]. A rare autosomal-recessive form of central DI has been described that is characterized by DI, diabetes mellitus (DM), optic atrophy (OA), and deafness (dIDMOAD or Wolfram's syndrome). This has been linked to a defect in chromosome-4 and involves abnormalities in mitochondrial DNA [27]. SP—signal peptide; VP—vasopressin; NP—neurophysin; GP—glycoprotein.

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