Mechanisms by which growth factors may possibly alter outcomes of acute renal failure (ARF). Epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) have all been demonstrated to improve outcomes when administered in the setting of experimental ARF. While the results are the same, the respective mechanisms of actions of each of these growth factors are probably quite different. Many investigators have examined individual growth factors for a variety of properties that may be beneficial in the setting of ARF. This table lists several of the properties examined to date. Suffice it to say that the mechanisms by which the individual growth factors alter the course of experimental ARF is still unknown.
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