Figure 212

Mechanism of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) action on the kidney. Animals with disruption of the particulate form of guanylyl cyclase (GC) manifest increased mean arterial pressure that is independent of dietary intake of sodium chloride. To test whether ANP mediates its renal effects by way of the action of GC, ANP was infused into wild-type and GC-A-deficient mice. In wild-type animals, ANP led to prompt natriuresis. In GC-A-deficient mice, no effect was observed. UNaV—urinary sodium excretion volume. (Modified from Kishimoto [24].)

Afferent Efferent

Afferent Efferent

FIGURE 2-13

Schematic diagram of neural connections important in circulatory control. Although the system is bilaterally symmetric, afferent fibers are shown to the left and efferent fibers to the right. Sympathetic fibers are shown as solid lines and parasympathetic fibers as dashed lines. The heart receives both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation. Sympathetic fibers lead to vasoconstriction and renal sodium chloride retention. X indicates the vagus nerve; IX indicates glossopharyngeal. (From Korner [25]; with permission.)

Normal effective arterial volume

GFR RPF

=Filtration fraction

Filtration E

GFR RPF

=Filtration fraction

Filtration E

Backleak

Low effective arterial volume

¿GF-R =tFiltration fraction

WRPF

Filtration E

¿GF-R =tFiltration fraction

WRPF

Filtration E

X Backleak

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