Figure 233

Contribution of nitric oxide to vasodilation and sodium (Na) retention in cirrhosis. Compared with control rats, rats having cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride and phenobarbital exhibited increased plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentrations. At steady state, the urinary Na excretion (UNaV) was similar in both groups. After treatment with L-NAME for 7 days, plasma renin activity decreased to normal levels, AVP concentrations decreased toward normal levels, and urinary Na excretion increased by threefold. These changes were associated with a normalization of mean arterial pressure and cardiac output. (Data compiled from Niederberger and coworkers [66,67] and Martin and Schrier [68].)

Fluid intake

Nonrenal fluid loss r©

Arterial pressure

Net volume intake

Kidney volume output

Total peripheral resistance

Cardiac output

Kidney volume output

Rate of change of extracellular fluid volume

Rate of change of extracellular fluid volume

ECF volume, L

ECF volume, L

Extracellular fluid volume

Central

1 Peripheral

blood volume

M

blood volume

I Mean circulatory I filling pressure

Venous return

I Mean circulatory I filling pressure

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