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de Rouffignac C, Quamme G: Renal magnesium handling and its hormonal control. Physiol Rev 1994, 74:305-322. Quamme GA: Magnesium homeostasis and renal magnesium handling. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1993, 19:218-225. Romani A, Marfella C, Scarpa A: Cell magnesium transport and homeostasis: role of intracellular compartments. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1993, 19:282-289.

Smith DL, Maguire ME: Molecular aspects of Mg2+ transport systems. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1993, 19:266-276.

Roof SK, Maguire ME: Magnesium transport systems: genetics and protein structure (a review). J Am Coll Nutr 1994, 13:424-428. Sutton RAL, Domrongkitchaiporn S: Abnormal renal magnesium handling. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1993, 19:232-240. de Rouffignac C, Mandon B, Wittner M, di Stefano A: Hormonal control of magnesium handling. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1993, 19:226-231. Whang R, Hampton EM, Whang DD: Magnesium homeostasis and clinical disorders of magnesium deficiency. Ann Pharmacother 1994, 28:220-226.

McLean RM: Magnesium and its therapeutic uses: a review. Am J Med 1994, 96:63-76.

10. Abbott LG, Rude RK: Clinical manifestations of magnesium deficiency. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1993, 19:314-322.

11. Al-Ghamdi SMG, Cameron EC, Sutton RAL: Magnesium deficiency: pathophysiologic and clinical overview. Am J Kid Dis 1994, 24:737-752.

12. Nadler JL, Rude RK: Disorders of magnesium metabolism. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1995, 24:623-641.

13. Kayne LH, Lee DBN: Intestinal magnesium absorption. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1993, 19:210-217.

14. Roth P, Werner E: Intestinal absorption of magnesium in man. Int J Appl Radiat Isotopes 1979, 30:523-526.

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16. di Stefano A, Roinel N, de Rouffignac C, Wittner M: Transepithelial Ca+ and Mg+ transport in the cortical thick ascending limb of Henle's loop of the mouse is a voltage-dependent process. Renal Physiol Biochem 1993, 16:157-166.

17. Nadler JL, Buchanan T, Natarajan R, et al.: Magnesium deficiency produces insulin resistance and increased thromboxane synthesis. Hypertension 1993, 21:1024-1029.

18. Ryzen E, Elbaum N, Singer FR, Rude RK: Parenteral magnesium tolerance testing in the evaluation of magnesium deficiency. Magnesium 1985, 4:137-147.

19. Oster JR, Epstein M: Management of magnesium depletion. Am J Nephrol 1988, 8:349-354.

20. Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR). Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company; 1996.

Divalent Cation

1

^Metabolism: Calcium J

James T. McCarthy Rajiv Kumar

/" 1 alcium is an essential element in the human body. Although over 1 99% of the total body calcium is located in bone, calcium is a V^y' critical cation in both the extracellular and intracellular spaces. Its concentration is held in a very narrow range in both spaces. In addition to its important role in the bone mineral matrix, calcium serves a vital role in nerve impulse transmission, muscular contraction, blood coagulation, hormone secretion, and intercellular adhesion. Calcium also is an important intracellular second messenger for processes such as exocytosis, chemotaxis, hormone secretion, enzymatic activity, and fertilization. Calcium balance is tightly regulated by the interplay between gastrointestinal absorption, renal excretion, bone resorption, and the vitamin D-parathyroid hormone (PTH) system [1-7].

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