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The Social Security operations manual contains over 2700 different rules. However, Jim Blair has broken this down into an easy to follow formula that will take just minutes. This guide will talk you through things in a way that is clear and easily understandable, and breaks down all your options whether you are married, divorced, single, or widowed; everyone is covered here. The Social Security Administration as an organization is notoriously unhelpful to claimants, because the huge number of claimants it faces everyday means they don't have time to go into as much detail with each individual claim as you need. With the Social Security Retirement Guide, you will be able to make a clear, informed decision about this important process, as otherwise you could miss out on hundreds of dollars a month. There are already hundreds of satisfied retirees who are receiving more money than they would have otherwise thanks to the Social Security Retirement Guide- and you can easily be one of them.

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Fruitful Years After The Final Retirement In 1979

Next to the pygmy elephant problem, with which Eisentraut occupied himself intensively, there were several other projects which he followed up after his second and final retirement in 1979. Several papers (see B hme and Hutterer 1999 for details) added new data to his big monograph Das Gaumenfaltenmuster der S ugetiere und seine Bedeutung f r stammesgeschichtliche und taxonomische Untersuchungen ( The pattern of palatal ridges in mammals and its importance for phylogenetic and taxonomic studies Eisentraut 1976) (a reference unfortunately lacking in the bibliography by B hme and Hutterer l.c.). But his most important works in these years were two books where he revisited his great expeditions in a popular, narrative form. One of them, entitled Im Land der Chaco-Indianer ( In the land of the Chaco Indians, Eisentraut 1983) dealt with the Bolivian Chaco which he had visited again in 1977, 75 years old, accompanied by his daughter Hannelore Vaassen, and he devoted much space to the...

The First Four Years after my Retirement 19982001

When I reached retirement age in February 1998, my group was still productive and I did not want to stop my research. For the first three years I still had a large SFB grant, for Many years ago, when I met Mark Ptashne in Tiblisi I had suggested such a loop between the left and the right operators of phage Lambda DNA. At that time we had just done the in vitro experiments showing lac0-LacR-lac0 loops. Mark laughed and thought the whole idea was nonsense. But now here it was. I am immensely happy that these experiments could be done after my retirement. It is a good experience to end

The Last Ten Years Before my Retirement in Cologne 19881997

During the last ten years before my retirement, I concentrated my research on the lac system of E. coll. We showed that operator-Lac repressor-operator looping can be quantitized with gel shift experiments 52 . My student Stefan Oehler demonstrated that two such loops can be formed with 01 one with 02 and the other with 03. Thus, only when 02 and 03 are destroyed, repression goes down 70-fold. When 02 or 03 are destroyed, it goes down twofold 35 . Stefan Oehler by chance also isolated a mutant Lac repressor, which was an active dimer. It carries a frameshift mutation in codon 330 53 . An inspection of the C-terminus of Lac repressor indicates two heptad repeats 54 . So we showed that the heptad repeats of Lac repressor are involved in tetramer formation 54 . We predicted that the tetramer is formed by a four helical bundle 55 . Later X-ray analysis indicated we were right 23 . We then showed indirectly that loop formation depends on the exact position of the two operators.

Assessing Stress and Coping in Late Life

However, the number of daily stressors does decrease with age, most probably due to the decline in the number of social roles. For example, most older adults have relinquished active parenting and work roles, the source of the majority of hassles in mid-life. While there is a concomitant increase in the number of hassles associated with both health problems and avocations in retirement, for most older adults, these typically do not generate as many hassles as do work and childrearing roles.

Popular Writing Travel Books

Our retirement was a complete break we burned our bridges behind us, both geographically and professionally. We sold our home, packed our bags and sailed off into the unknown - quite literally, for we did not know where in England we would eventually settle.We made no new academic connections, though there would have been opportunities aplenty, had we so desired. We

Cameroon 1938 And 19541973

In 1969, at the age of 65, Martin Eisentraut had to retire from the directorship of Museum Koenig after 12 years. However, his retirement proved to be only a break rather than the beginning of a phase of his life without administrative duties. Since his successor was suspended from directorship in 1971, Eisentraut was asked to return again for a couple of years to guide the museum, and it was this year that I entered Museum Koenig myself. Two years later, Eisentraut planned another research trip to Cameroon where he wanted to extend his activity for the first time to the arid

Worksheet 23The Current Culprits Survey

Have I made any major changes in my life such as retirement, a new job, or a new relationship You may notice that a few of the items above have positive aspects to them. For example, retirement or the purchase of a new home may be exciting. However, all major changes, whether positive or negative, carry significant stress that tags along for the ride.

Biochemistry Research at Oxford 19751993

More generally) was a problem which had interested me from the early 1960s and was to occupy me until my retirement in 1993 and beyond (I finally gave up laboratory research in about 1995 when my last graduate student completed her studies). This was an area of research which we pursued in parallel with the laboratories of L.J. Reed (Dallas) and O.H. Wieland (Munich). The other major area of interest was prompted by our discovery in the late 1970s early 1980s that the branched chain 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase (BCDH) complex is also regulated by reversible phosphorylation (i.e. the enzyme complex which initiates oxidation of the 2-oxoacids formed by deamination of leucine, isoleucine, and valine). I first became interested in this enzyme complex in 1976 in collaboration with P.J.J. Parker (then a graduate student).

Work for the Department of Health Knighthood

The problem was solved adventitiously by an appointment in the early 1980s by the Department of Health to chair a committee to advise the government on the vexed problem of diet and coronary heart disease. This was a contentious and time consuming subject in the 1980s and I deliberately suggested names for this committee which would represent varying points of view and be reflected in what I hoped would be seen as a very frank and balanced report. The enquiry itself was conducted over a three-year period in the midst of a great deal of publicity and public debate. Many of my colleagues on the committee were frequently to be seen on television or heard on the radio (I limited myself to one radio appearance following publication of the report.). In consequence there was an air of expectation and we were fortunate that the report when published in 1985 burst the bubble of contention. It received a good press and the government gratefully accepted our findings and implemented our...

Mechanisms Mediating the Role of the PDH Complex in Regulating Glucose Oxidation with Special Reference to Inhibitory

I gave up research in 1995 after two years of retirement (so-called). Since then, the further studies of R.A. Harris and of M.C. Sugden and their colleagues have identified four isozymes of PDH kinase and their respective roles in the regulation of PDH complex activity 64-70 .

Group Composition and the Bases of Similarity

Once it is conceded that experiential similarity serves as a stronger basis for mutual identification and empathic understanding than structural similarity based on age or marital status, for example, questions arise concerning how similar the common experience must be in order for the participants to attend and compare themselves to one another, and to develop bonds of affection and belonging. For example, for a group of recent widows, their bereavement is probably not sufficient to level differences based on the cause and age of their partner's death. It is unlikely that widows whose husbands had died of heart attacks would perceive themselves to be in the same boat'' as widows whose husbands had been murdered or killed in a traffic accident or who had died in the line of wartime fire or by taking their own lives. The same careful consideration of the bases of similarity is warranted in planning the composition of virtually every group for people who have undergone stressful life...

Psychological Insights

The last stage is integrity versus despair. Retirement is one of the worst ideas ever concocted by the mind of man. It is simply not the case that reaching a particular age signals the end of our ability to contribute. People who have worked all our lives will not necessarily flourish in a state of idleness, with nothing to focus on but our own amusement. As we age, we may lose some of our former energy and stamina, but very few people undergo a sudden breakdown that renders us useless. One of the cruelest insults we can level at another person is to convince them prematurely that their life is over. Many senior people can draw on years of experience and stores of wisdom that younger, more energetic colleagues do not yet possess. We should be looking for ways to keep senior colleagues engaged in medical education. People who do not find meaningful opportunities to continue to contribute will tend to stagnate and may even find themselves reduced to a state of despair. And we need not...

The Medical Humanists

A good case can be made that humanism and humanists at universities throughout Western Europe played a key role in transforming the scholastic medieval curriculum. University faculties fought about funding, arrogant celebrity scholars, full-time and adjunct positions, pensions, and dress codes, and complained about town and gown tensions, while students attempted to censure professors for what they considered inadequate teaching. In other words, much about the academic environment has remained the same. Despite the persistence of many aspects of the medieval intellectual tradition, humanist scholars, especially those at Italian universities, fomented a real intellectual revolution. But, for many reasons, the Italian universities were in decline in the seventeenth century as universities in other regions offered strong competition for students and faculty.

Service on General Medical and Dental Councils

Funded by the benefaction of the Oxford motor car entrepreneur Lord Nuffield. In the early days of clinical biochemistry, it was common for laboratories in the UK to be directed by non-medical biochemists. My work in establishing the Bristol biochemistry department was essentially complete the Oxford clinical school (a postwar development) was growing and was acquiring a substantial reputation and a change of scene seemed a good idea. An innocent comment of mine to the late Dr. D.H. Williamson about the planned chair, whilst examining a DPhil student with him in Oxford, was unexpectedly passed on by him to others in the school and I was encouraged to apply. The Oxford post was duly advertised in 1974 and I was fortunate enough to be appointed. After a year's delay (to hand over responsibilities in Bristol), I moved to Oxford in 1975. Alan Kerbey moved with me to a research assistant post and completed his Bristol PhD shortly thereafter. He stayed with me with periodic promotions until...

Puncture and Dissection Wounds

Problem was highlighted by a report on the deaths of 33 Parisian medical students between 1826 and 1846.29 Practitioners were infected particularly after performing postmortem examinations or operations, before gloves were used, from pus collections in the pelvis or abdominal cavity, These cases included Hewson, an anatomist who died 13 days after an infected dissection injury in 1774,30 Paget, a surgical pathologist, who was extremely ill after a postmortem examination and developed multiple abscesses of the axilla and chest wall which caused him to retire from active surgery in 1871,31 and Davies, a chest surgeon, who cut his right hand during an operation for an empyema in 1916, to develop infection and septicaemia for which initial advice to amputate was cancelled, leaving him with a crippled arm, also leading to retirement from surgery.32 Sometimes amputation was undertaken to prevent infective spread via the lymphatics towards the trunk but usually too late to save life. Nurses...

The Silence of Von Verschuer and his Colleagues Scientists and Historians

He mentioned the past just once, in the lecture he gave on the occasion of his retirement, a text which exists only in manuscript (51). He spoke about the possibilities of misuse of modern human genetics. And then he said 'Because of the experience of our past - misuse of eugenics through political demons (die DUmonie) - we ought to be shielded against proposals of any ideological eugenics'. The central phrase is 'misuse of

Coronary Artery Disease

In 1981, Henderson and colleagues recruited over 8,000 women from a retirement community in Laguna Hills, California called Leisure World. This is a stable community and very few individuals were lost to follow-up. Of this cohort, 57 percent reported estrogen use, 14 percent were current users at the time of the questionnaire, and 43 percent reported previous use. The incidence of mortality from acute myocardial infarction was statistically lower among current users and those who had used estrogen in the past compared to nonusers. The relative risk was 0.59, with the 95 percent confidence interval (CI) of 0.42 to 0.82.


There are a number of ways of looking at career development, one of the better being that of D.E. Super, put forward in 1990. This model is interesting because it links psychological changes with various stages in a career, beginning with entry into a career until retirement. Of course, the pattern discernible in a person's career is to some extent dependent on the nature of their work. For example, a factory hand's career is likely to be far more circumscribed with less chance of development than that of a school-teacher. 4 Disengagement. As might be expected, the final stage in a career is one of gradual decline or disengagement. The first part of this stage is a gradual withdrawal from the job in a psychological sense. The person is no longer as actively engaged, no longer so committed, no longer looking to the future for potential changes. There is sort of distancing as though the person is anticipating no longer being in the position. The second part of this stage is retirement...

The lifespan

That the two men had remained friends throughout their adult lives was, perhaps, due to their lack of general competitiveness. Neither envied the other's minor successes (there had been no major successes for either of them) and they had always found it very easy and companionable to talk things through with each other. They were now in their late fifties and had begun to mention retirement which, for both of them, would happen at 60. Neither could see any point in working further. For the first time that they could remember, Alan and Terry found that they were disagreeing, not violently, but consistently. Terry was quite clear that he was making some very definite plans for his retirement. He wanted to spend a year travelling with his wife, if they could afford it, and according to his calculations, they would be able to. Then he wanted to settle down to do some of the things that he had never had the time to do. For some reason that he had long forgotten he had always been...

Harmaline Tremor

Although tremor is a common sign of neurological disorders such as Parkinson disease, Wilson disease, and hereditary ataxia, most adults with clinically significant tremor have idiopathic or essential tremor (ET). Millions of Americans including at least four percent of adults over the age of fifty have ET, a bothersome and sometimes disabling movement disorder (Elble and Koller 1990 Louis et al. 1998). ET is a 4- to 12-Hz action tremor with a prominent postural and relatively milder kinetic component (Elble and Koller 1990). While ET mainly affects the arms, the head and voice are also often involved. Mechanical loads have little effect on the frequency of ET, which distinguishes ET from enhanced physiological tremor. The postural nature of ET often significantly interferes with activities of daily living such as eating and writing. For some patients, drinking from a glass without spilling becomes impossible. Persons with occupations dependent on manual dexterity such as secretaries...


An illuminating way to analyze the social worth of a medical specialty such as diagnostic radiology might be this. What level of income would be necessary to entice a sufficient number of individuals to enter the field and promote a sufficient level of quality in their practice Paying radiologists one dollar per day is clearly not enough. On the other hand, paying them a billion dollars a year would be overkill. In the latter scenario, many might opt for early retirement, thus depriving the public of experienced practitioners. Moreover, the associated reallocation of resources would have serious consequences for the rest of the economy. From a societal point of view, the goal would be to pay groups of physicians such as radiologists enough to guarantee readily accessible, high-quality imaging services, but nothing more, and certainly not so much that the community suffers.


General Sickles Viewing His Leg

Leaving him with poor function and a threat of retirement. He perceived a sophisticated artificial limb would improve his capacity and after surgery and rehabilitation was permitted to remain in the service fully active and, indeed, was enabled to join a polar expedition.26 In the 16th century, Par left the following account of reamputation of an overlong stump incompatible with the prostheses then available On a different note, some Muslim patients preserve their amputated limbs or limb remnants to be buried with them after death so they can go to Paradise whole. And on a related note, the preserved limb has been retained, in one instance at least, for public inspection and the victim's repeated pilgrimage, as the case of General Sickles reveals. Injured while on horseback at the battle of Gettysburg, his shin being shattered by a cannon-ball, he was evacuated with a saddle-strap tourniquet, smoking a cigar and drinking brandy. After a low-thigh amputation, the specimen was preserved...


Amputation Instruments

For lesser amputations of fingers and toes, toleration by the community is more evident, and indeed such amputees may lead a normal existence without apparent physical handicap, especially if only a single digit has been lost, for adaptation and reeducation of the hand may be remarkable, as a colleague's history confirms. He lost his left index finger in an accident at the age of 4 and subsequently played the piano, passing the Teacher's Certificate at the Royal Academy of Music, and later became a consultant orthopaedic surgeon performing major operations demanding bimanual skill and control until normal retirement he has observed his left middle finger is thicker than on the right, although he is right-handed.15

Old age and death

There are obvious changes that occur with advancing years, both physically and psychologically. One way of looking at such changes is that they either represent or reflect a growing disengagement with life in general or, perhaps, a disengagement with one's own capacities to deal with life. This might well be so for some people as they age. However, an alternative way of looking at the ageing process is that disengagement is forced on the person through lowered physical capacities, retirement and or illness. In spite of this, with increasing age, some people strive to become even more involved with life in spite of whatever decline they might be subjected to. The possible changes to social life in later years have already been mentioned. In some ways, after retirement there is more time per day (even though there might be less time overall) in which to consider things social. Improved social lives can be built on the many experiences that people have had as they have gone through the...

Mass Spectrometry

Jan, together with Sune Bergstrom, was also the one who originally recruited me into the Department of Chemistry after my dissertation and Theo's retirement in 1970. Over the years, both Sune and Jan have been devoted chemists. Sune sometimes phoned me, at any time, and is the only colleague who has ever phoned me late New Year's eve with a scientific question. Later, I succeeded Sune on his chair, a result that I could not even have dreamt of at the time when he first saved me to the Chemistry department. Jan retired later, and then joined my grouping to promote protein mass spectrometry. Again, these transfers illustrate the adjustments of science, and the good results of combinations of methodology and project-driven science. During the early days, protein chemistry had little use of mass spectrometry, because of lack of volatility of peptides, and even worse, of proteins True, all protein chemists, at meetings, in particular the MPSA series, always had sessions on mass...