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Every year from 1986 to 2000, a jury of specialists handed out both awards and scholarships, under the aegis of Fondation Ipsen. The awards offered recognition for outstanding contributions to Alzheimer research (K. Beyreuther, J. Hardy, J.-F. Foncin, C. Duyckaerts and A. Delacourte, to mention only a few) while the scholarships were intended to encourage the work of young researchers. More than 60 people have benefited from them in various capacities. (Fig. 3)
For the year 1977-1978,1 accepted an invitation to be the George Eastman visiting professor at Oxford. This position was established in 1930 through the philanthropy of the American manufacturer, George Eastman. It was limited to American citizens, creating a kind of inverse of Rhodes scholarships. Rhodes scholars have often been viewed in England as visitors from a relatively backward former British colony, coming to Oxford for a taste of culture and scholarship the Eastman professorship represents the other side of the coin - as if to say that we have scholars in America, too, whose teaching can benefit Oxonian students. Oxford freely selects the recipient of this award. There is no influence from the American side. About half the appointees have been scientists, including Linus Pauling in 1948 and George Beadle in 1958. Beadle became a Nobel laureate while in residence at Oxford. Beadle's wife,
Simons entered Jefferson Medical College as a private in the wartime Army Specialist Training Program, and would later serve as an intern at Lancaster Hospital, where he completed a 15-month rotating scholarship. He then owed some military time and would serve 2 years in the Army Air Corps.
In surveys of the history of medicine, the invention of science and rational medicine was generally credited to the Greek natural philosophers who lived during the sixth century B.C.E. Accustomed to tracing the roots of Western culture back to Greece, with some slight concessions to those civilizations mentioned in the Bible, European scholars generally ignored the evolution of medicine, science, and philosophy in India and China. This peculiarly narrow focus is especially unfortunate in the history of medicine because, unlike the ancient medical traditions of Mesopotamia and Egypt, those of India and China are still very much alive. Recent scholarship, however, has made it clear that the very different paths taken in pursuit of health, healing, and systematic inquiry in China and India are well worth exploring. Historians have come to realize that the scientific and medical traditions that developed in China and India were complex, productive, and different from European traditions...
In the era between Alzheimer's initial report in 1907 and 1960s, the primary focus of scholarship on dementia was the epistemology of the disease and the struggle for consensus on the clinical definitions (Dillmann 2000) Progress in understanding the relationships between the behavioral expression and pathological phenotypes of dementia was relatively slow during this period due to two impediments first, the lack of objective clinical assessment tools, and second, uncertainty in the definition of the clinical phenomenon.
The mission of the society is to promote excellence in research and practice of obstetric anaesthesia and perinatology. Through its newsletter, internet site and annual meetings, SOAP allows practitioners of several specialties to meet and discuss clinical practice, basic and clinical research and practical professional concerns. SOAP has a travelling scholarship programme, allowing overseas anaesthetists from developing countries to travel to the annual meeting and to spend one week at a centre of excellence in the USA. The society awards an annual research fellowship and a smaller research starter grant is also offered. The address of SOAP is
In the 1980s with the founding of The International Journal of Personal Construct Psychology in 1988. This forum was renamed Journal of Constructivist Psychology in 1994 to accommodate the growing diversity of constructivist scholarship beyond Kelly's personal construct psychology. Increasing interest in constructivist theory, research, and practice in both individual and family therapy has enriched the field, spawning the diversity of constructivist perspectives outlined below.
In addition to in silico prediction of structural links to toxic endpoints based upon databases of specific toxic outcomes, there are efforts to establish databases of genome, tissue, organ and cellular pathway responses to external stimuli, for example the study of expressed proteins and peptides in response to chemical intervention (proteomics). To date, there is little literature precedent for predictive association of structural types to particular profiles or from characteristic profiles to in vivo outcomes in these systems 86 . One example of an initiative to tackle this challenge is the chemical effects in biological systems knowledge base (CEBS) run by the National Center for Toxciogenomics (NCT). One aim of this challenging initiative is to provide scholarship on structure-toxicity relationships by building an integrated dataset of gene, protein and metabolite changes collected in context of exposure, time, target organ and severity of outcome 87 . An overarching issue in...
The chronically bad finances of WGS had to be put on a sounder basis. When Jan Wallander became chairman he sold the two central buildings in 1990 and invested the capital to yield a good return. The WGS kept the guest apartments and continued to subsidize the living costs of foreign scientists. But on top of that there were now funds to give scholarships. This possibility emerged in a small scale during the time of David Ottoson but it was not until I became secretary that the program got into full operation. The budget for grants for scientific exchange from WGS is today in the order of 5 million euro.
While the humanist scholars were generally more concerned with art and literature than science, their new perspective served the needs of the medical sciences as well. As staunch supporters of the newly purified Galenic texts, humanist scholars rejected corrupt medieval translations. Nevertheless, their excessive respect for ancient authorities made them skeptical of attempts to create a new medical science that would be independent of the ancient Greeks. The work of Thomas Linacre (14607-1524) and John Caius (1510-1573), outstanding English medical humanists, exemplifies the nature of scholarship and medical education during this period.
The errors of the ancients clearly and publicly. Through his scholarship and his own observations, he came to realize that human anatomy must be read from the ''book of the human body,'' not from the pages of Galen. With all due modesty, Vesalius regarded his work as the first real advance in anatomical knowledge since the time of Galen. Despite being steeped in the conservative academic scholarship of his time, Vesalius confronted and rejected Galen's authority and demanded that anatomists study only the ''completely trustworthy book of man.'' Vesalius attributed his own disillusionment with Galen to his discovery that Galen had never dissected the human body. However, a minor work, known as the ''Bloodletting Letter,'' suggests that practical problems concerning venesection forced Vesalius to question Galenic dogma. Venesection was the subject of violent controversy among sixteenth-century physicians. No one suggested abandoning bloodletting rather, the medical humanists attacked...
Washington University presented Dr Berg with a Distinguished Alumnus Award in 1983, an Alumni Faculty Award from the Medical Alumni Association in 1989, and the Second Century Award for his long-term commitment and dedication to the medical school in 1999. A Distinguished Alumni Scholarship was established in his honor in 1995. The St. Louis Chapter of the Alzheimer's Association honored him with their 1989 Public Service Award. In 1998, the St. Louis Academy of Science honored Dr Berg with the Peter H. Raven Lifetime Award.
Korean physicians were very much influenced by Chinese medical philosophy, and used Chinese medical terms in describing disease, but they also reinterpreted Chinese texts in terms of local conditions and added information obtained from Indian sources. Scholarly discussions of disease generally followed the principles set forth in the Chinese medical literature, but the study of Korea's traditional folk remedies stimulated the development of an independent line of medical scholarship that recognized the importance of local conditions. Such texts include the Emergency Remedies of Folk Medicine (1236), a medical encyclopedia entitled the Compilation of Native Korean Prescriptions (1433), and the Exemplar of Korean Medicine (1610).
The changing pattern of epidemic diseases or diagnostic categories characteristic of the Renaissance is almost as striking as the transformation of art, science, and scholarship. Although leprosy did not entirely disappear, and waves of plague continued to break over Europe, diseases previously rare, absent, or unrecognized such as syphilis, typhus, smallpox, and influenza became major public health threats. Many diseases are worthy of a full biography, but none raises more intriguing questions than syphilis, the ''Scourge of the Renaissance.'' Because syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease, it is a particularly sensitive tracer of the obscure pathways of human contacts throughout the world, as well as the intimate links between social and medical concepts.
As the family of constructivist therapies has grown, so too has the repertory of clinical strategies associated with them, and the body of qualitative and quantitative research emanating from them. While a thorough review of the theoretical, empirical, and applied literature associated with this perspective is clearly beyond the scope of this article, the present article provides an initial point of entry into this burgeoning contemporary therapeutic tradition, and offers some leads for the reader interested in pursuing its implications for clinical scholarship, research, and practice in greater detail.
Figure 1.15 Cats, by Louis Wain (1860-1939). Wain was a British artist who became famous for his drawings of cats. He was a patient at the Bethlem Hospital in the 1920s. Paintings such as these, which are suggestive of disorganization, visual perceptual disturbances and abnormalities of affect, have been taken as illustrative of his psychological decline, although more recent scholarship suggests that they were not out of keeping with contemporary design practice. Reproduced with kind permission of the Bethlem Royal Hospital Archives and Museum, Beckenham, Kent, UK Figure 1.15 Cats, by Louis Wain (1860-1939). Wain was a British artist who became famous for his drawings of cats. He was a patient at the Bethlem Hospital in the 1920s. Paintings such as these, which are suggestive of disorganization, visual perceptual disturbances and abnormalities of affect, have been taken as illustrative of his psychological decline, although more recent scholarship suggests that they were not out of...
Congressman John Porter (R-Illinois) had become concerned about the possibility that the museum would authorize the study of Lincoln's DNA, and he had formally requested that we answer four questions (1) Is the proposal consistent with the best traditions of American scholarship and research (2) Does the proposal violate Lincoln's privacy or his views on the disclosure of personal health and medical information (3) Is it acceptable for a museum to allow specimens of great historic value to be destructively tested if a compelling public interest is served by doing so (4) Is this proposal consistent with the prevailing standard of professional ethics in the disciplines of science and history The first, third, and fourth questions were relatively straightforward to address. Scholarly interest in the health of major historical figures and how illness may have influenced their behavior is a well-established area of research among historians. One need only think of the interest in the...
He is an active participant in extracurricular sports such as soccer and basketball. Jeff and his parents both report that they hope he may be able to receive an athletic scholarship for college. Mr. and Mrs. M. stated that sports take up much of Jeff's time after school. To complete all of his homework, his parents indicated that they must help motivate him or push him to do it. They stated that he seems to do better when he has an example in front of him from which to work.