Minimal restraint

Stallions differ significantly in their response to handling and restraint during covering and semen collection. Some stallions object to even the slightest restraint and are hard to collect from by conventional means. It is possible to collect semen from an unrestrained stallion, using an AV, though it is potentially very dangerous. This method is used by the University of Wales, Institute of Rural Studies for the collection of semen from semi-wild Welsh Mountain Section A stallions (under...

Preparation and maintenance

All AV components that come into contact with ejaculated semen must be thoroughly clean and disinfected prior to use, including all liners, collecting vessels, glassware, etc. These components must also be non-spermicidal in nature, as must the products used to clean them. Sterile, non-toxic, disposable liners and collecting vessels are readily available for most AVs. These are convenient to use and ensure that there is no transmission of disease between animals and no chemical contamination of...

The Nishikawa model

The Nishikawa or Japanese AV (Fujihira Industry Co. Ltd, 11 Hongo 6 Chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan) was developed in Japan, from where its use has become more widespread however, its availability is now limited (Fig. 5.4). It consists primarily of a small, rigid aluminium case with a single inner rubber liner and is shorter in length than other types of AV available. As a result it is lightweight and thus easy to manoeuvre. It is also easy to clean and assemble, having only one rubber liner....

Training the Stallion for Collection

As with training any animal for a specific task or purpose, the key words are patience, consistent discipline and praise, and safety for both handlers and stock. The same applies to the training of a novice stallion. The act of mounting a mare is a natural instinct, so some stallions adapt very readily to the use of a jump mare, dummy and AV. However, it is most important that the stallion perceives the process as a pleasurable event and is happy to continue. Unpleasant psychological or painful...

The Missouri model

Nurse Forcing Sperm Collection

The Missouri AV Nasco, Ft Atkinson, Wisconsin is the most popular model in use in the USA today and is available in different sizes Figs 5.6 and 5.7 . This model differs from the previous ones in that it is largely made of rubber and has no rigid barrel and so is lightweight and manoeuvrable. The water jacket for the temperature control of the AV is a sealed chamber between the walls of the double-walled rubber liner. The whole unit is then enclosed in a Fig. 5.5. The Nishikawa model of AV,...

The Condom

Condom Semen

An alternative to the AV is the use of the condom Fig. 5.10 , a large rubber sheath placed over the stallion's penis when fully erect. The condom needs to be large enough to allow adequate room for the collection of the ejaculated semen. After liberal lubrication of the mare's vulva and vagina and of the condom, the stallion is allowed to mount and penetrate the mare as per natural service. The sample is collected within the condom, which is removed immediately upon dismount. The use of condoms...

The jump mare and her preparation for use

If a jump mare is to be used, it is most important that she is well into oestrus, is docile in temperament and stands well to the stallion. In many countries the health status of such mares must be equivalent to that of the stallion and they must be housed away from stock of lower status. The mare's temperament is particularly important if the stallion is inexperienced at semen collection or is a young animal. A well-placed kick by a mare may cause considerable psychological as well as physical...

The Cambridge and Colorado models

Vagina Artificial Nishikawa

The Cambridge AV Fig. 5.2 is essentially similar to the Colorado or Lane model Lane Manufacturing Co., Denver, Colorado and the CSU model Fig. 5.1. The major features required of an artificial vagina AV . Fig. 5.1. The major features required of an artificial vagina AV . Animal Reproductive Systems, Chiro, California . The Cambridge model is primarily used in the UK and the rest of Europe, whereas the Colorado or Lane model and the CSU AV find greater popularity in the USA. Fig. 5.2. The...

The dummy mare

Vagina Equidame

A good alternative to a live jump mare is the use of a dummy or phantom mare Kenney and Cooper, 1974 Richardson and Wenkhoff, 1976 Fig. 5.19 . Dummy mares were originally designed for stallions who were unable, for some reason, to mount a live jump mare. However, their use has now spread to become routine in semen collection Kenney and Cooper, 1974 Richardson and Wencoff, 1976 . Most stallions, given time and the initial encouragement of an oestrous mare in the vicinity, can be persuaded to...

Alternative models

The Hannover AV Figs 5.8 and 5.9 is very similar in design to the Cambridge and CSU models, but lighter in weight and easier to manipulate. The liners used for the CSU model may also be used with the Hannover AV. This AV is particularly popular in The Netherlands and Germany B.A. Ball, California, 1998, personal communication J.M. Parlevliet, The Netherlands, 1998, personal communication . The Roanoke AV Roanoke Laboratories, Roanoke, Virginia is a much less popular type. It comprises a short...

Collection without mounting

Semen may be collected using an AV but in the absence of a teaser mare or dummy for mounting. Thirteen stallions out of a group of 18 used by Schumacher and Riddell 1986 successfully ejaculated into an AV placed over Fig. 5.22. The specially designed collection area used by the University of Wales Aberystwyth, Institute of Rural Studies to collect from unrestrained, pony stallions. Fig. 5.22. The specially designed collection area used by the University of Wales Aberystwyth, Institute of Rural...

Collection Procedure

Stallionpenis

Several methods of semen collection have been discussed in the previous sections, the majority of which involve the use of an AV. The procedures for the correct use of an AV are varied and depend on the type of AV being used and individual stallion preference. Regardless of the specific techniques that are chosen, the following principles apply to the collection procedure. The aim when using an AV is to mimic the natural vagina and it is important that, among other things, the positioning of...