Venous Sinus Obstruction in Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome Cause or Effect

Dural Sinus Stenosis Stent

Whether venous sinus obstruction in PTS is cause or effect remains unresolved. The experimental and clinical evidence discussed above indicates that there is potential for primary venous sinus pathology to cause PTS and there is also potential for secondary venous sinus obstruction due to raised intracranial pressure. We discuss below the available evidence and also present a unifying theory based on the establishment of a disordered positive feedback cycle. The discussion will centre on the...

Methods and Techniques for Sacral Nerve Stimulation

Sacral Nerve Stimulator Placement

The sacrum is normally composed of five modified vertebrae which are fused together. It is a triangular bone mass extending from the inferior vertebral column and containing the sacral and coccygeal nerves. The skin in the sacral region is usually thick, and the subcutaneous tissue varies in thickness according to the habitus of the individual. It tends to be thinner than that found in the adjacent gluteal and lumbar regions. Situated deep below the superficial fascia are two layers of fibrous...