Basic and Clinical Aspects of Olfaction

1 Unité de Rhinologie-Olfactologie, Service d' Oto-Rhinologie-Laryngologie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Geneve, Geneve, Switzerland 2 Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School, Dresden, Germany

With 1 Figure


Abstract 70

Anatomy 70

Main Olfactory System 70

Trigeminal System 71

Gustatory System 72

Vomeronasal System 73

Olfactory Coding 73

Measurement of Olfactory Function 75

Psychophysical Methods of Olfactory Testing 75

Electrophysiological/Imaging Techniques Used to Test Olfactory

Testing 77

Causes and Symptoms of Smell Disorders 79

Most Common Causes 80

Olfactory Loss Following Infections of the Upper Respiratory Tract

Posttraumatic Olfactory Loss 81

Sinunasal Causes 82

Neurodegenerative Causes 82

Idiopathic 83

Less Frequent Causes 83

Endocrine Diseases 83

Epilepsy 83

General Pathologies 84

Post-Surgery/Anesthesia 84

Drug-Induced/Toxic 84

Congenital 85

Symptoms 85

Quantitative Olfactory Disorders 85

Qualitative Olfactory Disorders 85

Surgical Risks to the Olfactory System 86

Endoscopic Sinus/Transnasal Surgery 86

Craniotomy 87

Recovery of Smell Disorders 88

Treatment of Olfactory Disorders 89

Surgical 89

Conservative/Medication 89

Acknowledgements 91

References 91

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