relationships is always the same, i.e. retention and emptying of the bladder to ensure continence and micturition and to protect the upper urinary tract. To restore its function, surgical techniques intervening in the peripheral or central nervous systems have always played an important role. Recently, sacral neuromodulation, namely the electrical stimulation of the sacral nerves, appears to have become an alternative for radical bladder surgery particularly in cases of idiopathic bladder overactivity. The mechanism of action is only partially understood but it seems to involve a modulation in the spinal cord due to stimulation of inhibitory interneur-ons. This technique is also indicated in the case of idiopathic chronic retention and chronic pelvic pain syndrome.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.