1. Dodd J, Castellucci VF (1991) Smell and taste: The chemical senses. Principles of neural sciences. In: Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessel TM (eds) Elsevier Science Publishing Co, New York, p 512-529

2. Turner BH, Mishkin M, Knapp M (1980) Organization of the amygdalope-

tal projections from modality-specific cortical association areas in the monkey. J Comp Neurol 191: 515-543 Herz RS (2000) Scents of time. The Sciences 34-39

Zatorre RJ et al (1992) Functional localization and lateralization of human olfactory cortex. Nature 360: 339-340

Doty RL et al (1978) Intranasal trigeminal stimulation from odorous volatiles: psychometric responses from anosmic and normal humans. Physiol Behav 20: 175-185

Hummel T et al (2003) Effects of olfactory function, age, and gender on tri-geminally mediated sensations: a study based on the lateralization of chemo-sensory stimuli. Toxicol Lett 140-141: 273-280

Hummel T (2000) Assessment of intranasal trigeminal function. Int J Psy-chophysiol 36: 147-155

Cain WS (1974) Contribution of the trigeminal nerve to perceived odor magnitude. Ann NY Acad Sci 237: 28-34

Cain WS, Murphy CL (1980) Interaction between chemoreceptive modalities of odour and irritation. Nature 284: 255-257

Hummel T et al (1996) Loss of olfactory function leads to a decrease of trigeminal sensitivity. Chem Senses 21: 75-79

Gudziol H, Schubert M, Hummel T (2001) Decreased trigeminal sensitivity in anosmia. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 63: 72-75 Krause F (1895) Die Physiologie des Trigeminus nach Untersuchungen an Menschen, bei denen das Ganglion Gasseri entfernt worden ist (Schluss). Munch Med Wochenschr 27: 628-631

Ikeda I (1909) On a new seasoning. J Tokyo Chem Soc 30: 820-836 Ikeda K (2002) New seasonings. Chem Senses 27: 847-849 Chaudhari N, Landin AM, Roper SD (2000) A metabotropic glutamate receptor variant functions as a taste receptor. Nat Neurosci 3: 113-119 Witt M, Reutter K, Miller IJ Jr (2003) Morphology of the peripheral taste system. Handbook of olfaction and gustation. In: Doty RL (ed) Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, p 651-678

Beidler LM, Smallman RL (1965) Renewal of cells within taste buds. J Cell Bio 27: 263-272

Jacobson L, Trotier D, Doving KB (1998) Anatomical description of a new organ in the nose of domesticated animals by Ludvig Jacobson (1813). Chem Senses 23: 743-754

Cuvier G (1811) Rapport - Fait a l'Institut, sur un Memoire de M. Jacob-son, intitule: Descripion anatomique d'un organe observe dans les mammiferes. Annales du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle Paris. Tome 18: 412-424 Karlson P, Lüscher M (1959) "Pheromones": a new term for a class of biologically active substances. Nature 183: 55-56

Schaal B et al (2003) Chemical and behavioural characterization of the rabbit mammary pheromone. Nature 424: 68-72

Dorries KM, Adkins-Regan E, Halpern BP (1997) Sensitivity and behavioral responses to the pheromone androstenone are not mediated by the vomero-nasal organ in domestic pigs. Brain Behav Evol 49: 53-62

23. Monti-Bloch L, Grosser BI (1991) Effect of putative pheromones on the electrical activity of the human vomeronasal organ and olfactory epithelium. J Steroid Biochem Molec Biol 39: 573-582

24. Witt M et al (2002) On the chemosensory nature of the vomeronasal epithelium in adult humans. Histochem Cell Biol 117: 493-509

25. Knecht M et al (2001) Frequency and localization of the putative vomer-onasal organ in humans in relation to age and gender. Laryngoscope 111: 448-452

26. Witt M et al (2000) Characterization of the adult human vomeronasal organ using immunohistochemical and electrophysiological measures. Chem Senses 25: 668

27. Knecht M et al (2003) Assessment of olfactory function and androstenone odor thresholds in humans with or without functional occlusion of the vomeronasal duct. Behav Neurosci 117: 1135-1141

28. Stern K, McClintock MK (1998) Regulation of ovulation by human pheromones. Nature 392: 177-179

29. Savic I et al (2001) Smelling of odorous sex hormone-like compounds causes sex-differentiated hypothalamic activations in humans. Neuron 31: 661-668

30. Rodriguez I et al (2000) A putative pheromone receptor gene expressed in human olfactory mucosa. Nat Genet 26: 18-19

31. Mozell MM (1964) Evidence for sorption as a mechanism of the olfactory analysis of vapours. Nature 203: 1181-1182

32. Mozell MM, Jagodowicz M (1973) Chromatographic separation of odorants by the nose: retention times measured across in vivo olfactory mucosa. Science 181: 1247-1249

33. Sobel N et al (1999) The world smells different to each nostril. Nature 402: 35

34. Amoore JE (1967) Specific anosmia: a clue to the olfactory code. Nature 214: 1095-1098

35. Henning H (1916) Der Geruch. Johann Ambrosius Barth, Leipzig

36. Dyson GM (1938) The scientific basis of odour. Chem Ind 57: 647-651

37. Turin L (1996) A spectroscopic mechanism for primary olfactory reception. Chem Senses 21: 773-791

38. Keller A, Vosshall LB (2004) A psychophysical test of the vibration theory of olfaction. Nat Neurosci 7: 337-338

39. Buck L, Axel R (1991) A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: a molecular basis for odor recognition. Cell 65: 175-187

40. Gilad Y et al (2003) Human specific loss of olfactory receptor genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 28: 28

41. Menashe I et al (2003) Different noses for different people. Nat Genet 34: 143-144

42. Gilad Y et al (2003) Natural selection on the olfactory receptor gene family in humans and chimpanzees. Am J Hum Genet 73: 489-501

43. Gilad Y et al (2004) Loss of olfactory receptor genes coincides with the acquisition of full trichromatic vision in primates. PLoS Biol 2: E5

Man O, Gilad Y, Lancet D (2004) Prediction of the odorant binding site of olfactory receptor proteins by human-mouse comparisons. Protein Sci 13: 240-254

Strotmann J et al (1994) Olfactory neurones expressing distinct odorant receptor subtypes are spatially segregated in the nasal neuroepithelium. Cell Tissue Res 276: 429-438

Vassar R, Ngai J, Axel R (1993) Spatial segregation of odorant receptor expression in the mammalian olfactory epithelium. Cell 74: 309-318 Ressler KJ, Sullivan SL, Buck LB (1993) A zonal organization of odorant receptor gene expression in the olfactory epithelium. Cell 73: 597-609 Vassar R et al (1994) Topographic organization of sensory projections to the olfactory bulb. Cell 79: 981-991

Nef P et al (1992) Spatial pattern of receptor expression in the olfactory epithelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 8948-8952

Mombaerts P et al (1996) Visualizing an olfactory sensory map. Cell 87: 675-686

Zhao H et al (1998) Functional expression of a mammalian odorant receptor. Science 279: 237-242

Araneda RC, Kini AD, Firestein S (2000) The molecular receptive range of an odorant receptor. Nat Neurosci 3: 1248-1255

Uchida N et al (2000) Odor maps in the mammalian olfactory bulb: domain organization and odorant structural features. Nat Neurosci 3: 1035-1043 Malnic B et al (1999) Combinatorial receptor codes for odors. Cell 96: 713723

Landis BN et al (2003) Ratings of overall olfactory function. Chem Senses 28: 691-694

Hummel T et al (2001) Screening of olfactory function with a four-minute odor identification test: reliability, normative data, and investigations in patients with olfactory loss. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 110: 976-981

Doty RL, Shaman P, Dann M (1984) Development of the University of

Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test: a standardized microencapsulated test of olfactory function. Physiol Behav 32: 489-502

Cain WS et al (1988) Evaluation of olfactory dysfunction in the Connecticut

Chemosensory Clinical Research Center. Laryngoscope 98: 83-88

Doty RL et al (1984) University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test:

a rapid quantitative olfactory function test for the clinic. Laryngoscope 94:


Kobal G et al (1996) ''Sniffin' sticks'': screening of olfactory performance. Rhinology 34: 222-226

Hummel T et al (1997) 'Sniffin' sticks': olfactory performance assessed by the combined testing of odor identification, odor discrimination and olfactory threshold. Chem Senses 22: 39-52

Kobal G et al (2000) Multicenter investigation of 1,036 subjects using a standardized method for the assessment of olfactory function combining tests of odor identification, odor discrimination, and olfactory thresholds. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 257: 205-211

63. Kondo H et al (1998) A study of the relationship between the T&T olfactometer and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test in a Japanese population. Am J Rhinol 12: 353-358

64. Lecanu JB et al (2002) Valeurs normatives du test olfactometrique Biolfa. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac 119: 164-169

65. Briner HR, Simmen D (1999) Smell diskettes as screening test of olfaction. Rhinology 37: 145-148

66. Ho WK et al (2002) Change in olfaction after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer - a prospective study. Am J Otolaryngol 23: 209-214

67. Lotsch J, Lange C, Hummel T (2004) A simple and reliable method for clinical assessment of odor thresholds. Chem Senses 29: 311-317

68. Linschoten MR et al (2001) Fast and accurate measurement of taste and smell thresholds using a maximum-likelihood adaptive staircase procedure. Percept Psychophys 63: 1330-1347

69. Hawkes CH, Shephard BC (1993) Selective anosmia in Parkinson's disease? Lancet 341: 435-436

70. Koss E et al (1987) Olfactory detection and recognition in Alzheimer's disease. Lancet 1: 622

71. Koss E et al (1988) Olfactory detection and identification performance are dissociated in early Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 38: 1228-1232

72. Frasnelli JA et al (2002) Olfactory function in chronic renal failure. Am J Rhinol 16: 275-279

73. Hornung DE et al (1998) The olfactory loss that accompanies an HIV infection. Physiol Behav 15: 549-556

74. Jones-Gotman M, Zatorre RJ (1988) Olfactory identification deficits in patients with focal cerebral excision. Neuropsychologia 26: 387-400

75. Mesholam RI et al (1998) Olfaction in neurodegenerative disease: a meta-analysis of olfactory functioning in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Arch Neurol 55: 84-90

76. Daum RF et al (2000) Riechprüfung mit "Sniffin' Sticks'' zur klinischen Diagnostik des Morbus Parkinson. Nervenarzt 71: 643-650

77. Klimek L et al (1998) Lateralized and bilateral olfactory function in patients with chronic sinusitis compared with healthy control subjects. Laryngoscope 108: 111-114

78. Ottoson D (1956) Analysis of the electrical activity of the olfactory epithelium. Acta Physiol Scand 35: 1-83

79. Hummel T, Knecht M, Kobal G (1996) Peripherally obtained electrophy-siological responses to olfactory stimulation in man: electro-olfactograms exhibit a smaller degree of desensitization compared with subjective intensity estimates. Brain Res 717: 160-164

80. Leopold DA et al (2000) Anterior distribution of human olfactory epithelium. Laryngoscope 110: 417-421

81. Wang L, Chen L, Jacob T (2004) Evidence for peripheral plasticity in human odour response. J Physiol 554: 236-244

82. Spehr M et al (2004) The HOR17-4 signalling system - one receptor, dual capacity. Chem Sens (in press)

83. Rawson NE et al (1995) Functionally mature olfactory receptor neurons from two anosmic patients with Kallmann syndrome. Brain Res 681: 5864

84. Hummel T, Mojet J, Kobal G (1997) Electro-olfactograms are present when odorous stimuli have not been perceived. Chem Senses 22: 196

85. Knecht M, Hummel T (2004) Recording of the human electro-olfactogram. Physiol Behav 83: 13-19

86. Picton TW, Hillyard SA (1988) Endogenous event-related potentials. EEG-handbook, revised series, vol. 3. In: Picton TW (ed) Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 361-426

87. Kobal G, Plattig KH (1978) Methodische Anmerkungen zur Gewinnung olfaktorischer EEG-Antworten des wachen Menschen (objektive Olfaktometrie). Z EEG-EMG 9: 135-145

88. Kobal G (1981) Elektrophysiologische Untersuchungen des menschlichen Geruchssinns. Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart

89. Kobal G, Hummel T (1991) Olfactory evoked potentials in humans. Smell and taste in health and disease. In: Getchell TV et al (eds) Raven Press, New York, p 255-275

90. Pause BM et al (1996) The nature of the late positive complex within the olfactory event-related potential. Psychophysiology 33: 168-172

91. Krauel K et al (1998) Attentional modulation of central odor processing. Chem Senses 23: 423-432

92. Donchin E et al (1986) Cognitive psychophysiology and human information processing. Psychophysiology: systems, processes and applications. In: Coles MGH, Donchin E, Porges SW (eds) Guilford Press, New York

93. Kobal G, Hummel T, Van Toller S (1992) Differences in chemosensory evoked potentials to olfactory and somatosensory chemical stimuli presented to left and right nostrils. Chem Senses 17: 233-244

94. Pause B, Sojka B, Ferstl R (1996) The latency but not the amplitude of the olfactory event-related potential (OERP) varies with the odor concentration. Chem Senses 21: 485

95. Murphy C et al (1998) Age effects on central nervous system activity reflected in the olfactory event-related potential. Evidence for decline in middle age. Ann NY Acad Sci 855: 598-607

96. Lorig TS et al (1996) The effects of active and passive stimulation on chemosensory event-related potentials. Int J Psychophysiol 23: 199-205

97. Williamson SJ, Kaufman L (1987) Analysis of neuromagnetic signals. Handbook of electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiologgy, volume 1, Methods of brain electrical and magnetical signals. In: Gevins AS, Remond AA (eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 405-448

98. Huttunen J et al (1986) Cortical responses to painful CO2-stimulation of nasal mucosa: a magnetencephalographic study in man. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 64: 347-349

99. Kettenmann B et al (1996) Magnetoencephalographical recordings: separation of cortical responses to different chemical stimulation in man. Funct Neurosci [EEG Suppl] 46: 287-290

Kettenmann B et al (1997) Multiple olfactory activity in the human neocortex identified by magnetic source imaging. Chem Senses 22: 493-502 Ayabe-Kanamura S et al (1997) Measurement of olfactory evoked magnetic fields by a 64-channel whole-head SQUID system. Chem Senses 22: 214215

Welge-Lussen A (1999) Chemosensorisch evozierte Potentiale - Anwendung und Bedeutung im klinischen Alltag. HNO 47: 453-455 Kobal G, Hummel T (1998) Olfactory and intranasal trigeminal event-related potentials in anosmic patients. Laryngoscope 108: 1033-1035 Peters JM et al (2003) Olfactory function in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: an investigation using psychophysical and electrophysiological techniques. Am J Psychiatry 160: 1995-2002 Hudry J et al (2003) Olfactory short-term memory and related amygdala recordings in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain 126: 1851-1863 Savic I (2002) Imaging of brain activation by odorants in humans. Curr Opin Neurobiol 12: 455-461

Zald DH, Pardo JV (2000) Functional neuroimaging of the olfactory system in humans. Int J Psychophysiol 36: 165-181

Kettenmann B, Hummel T, Kobal G (2001) Functional imaging of olfactory activation in the human brain. Methods and frontiers in chemosensory research. In: Simon SA, Nicolelis MAL (eds) CRC Press, Baco Raton, Florida, USA, p 477-506

Small DM et al (1997) Flavor processing: more than the sum of its parts. Neuroreport 8: 3913-3917

Kareken DA et al (2004) Olfactory system activation from sniffing: effects in piriform and orbitofrontal cortex. Neuroimage 22: 456-465 Savic I, Berglund H (2004) Passive perception of odors and semantic circuits. Hum Brain Mapp 21: 271-278

Sobel N et al (2000) Time course of odorant-induced activation in the human primary olfactory cortex. J Neurophysiol 83: 537-551 Poellinger A et al (2001) Activation and habituation in olfaction - an fMRI study. Neuroimage 13: 547-560

Anderson AK et al (2003) Dissociated neural representations of intensity and valence in human olfaction. Nat Neurosci 6: 196-202 Yousem DM et al (1999) The effect of age on odor-stimulated functional MR imaging. Am J Neuroradiol 20: 600-608

Henkin RI, Levy LM, Lin CS (2000) Taste and smell phantoms revealed by brain functional MRI (fMRI). J Comput Assist Tomogr 24: 106-123 Wysocki CJ, Gilbert AN (1989) National Geographic Smell Survey: effects of age are heterogenous. Ann NY Acad Sci 561: 12-28 Hoffman HJ, Ishii EK, MacTurk RH (1998) Age-related changes in the prevalence of smell/taste problems among the United States adult population. Results of the 1994 disability supplement to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Ann NY Acad Sci 855: 716-722 Doty RL et al (1984) Smell identification ability: changes with age. Science 226: 1441-1443

Murphy C et al (2002) Prevalence of olfactory impairment in older adults. JAMA 288: 2307-2312

Bramerson A et al (2004) Prevalence of olfactory dysfunction: the skovde population-based study. Laryngoscope 114: 733-737

Landis BN, Konnerth CG, Hummel T (2004) A study on the frequency of olfactory dysfunction. Laryngoscope 114: 1764-1769 Miwa T et al (2001) Impact of olfactory impairment on quality of life and disability. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 127: 497-503 Temmel AF et al (2002) Characteristics of olfactory disorders in relation to major causes of olfactory loss. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 128: 635641

Hummel T, Nordin S (2004) Olfactory disorders and their consequences for quality of life - A review. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, in press

Santos DV et al (2004) Hazardous events associated with impaired olfactory function. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 130: 317-319

Damm M et al (2004) Riechstörungen - Epidemiologie und Therapie in

Deutschland, (Österreich und der Schweiz. HNO 52: 112-120

Quint C et al (2001) Patterns of non-conductive olfactory disorders in eastern

Austria: a study of 120 patients from the Department of Otorhinolaryngol-

ogy at the University of Vienna. Wien Klin Wochenschr 113: 52-57

Seiden AM, Duncan HJ (2001) The diagnosis of a conductive olfactory loss.

Laryngoscope 111: 9-14

Deems DA et al (1991) Smell and taste disorders: a study of 750 patients from the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center. Arch Otorhino-laryngol Head Neck Surg 117: 519-528

Jafek BW et al (1990) Postviral olfactory dysfunction. Am J Rhinol 4: 91100

Sugiura M et al (1998) An epidemiological study of postviral olfactory disorder. Acta Otolaryngol [Suppl] 538: 191-196

Faulcon P et al (1996) Anosmie secondaire a une rhinite aigue: semiologie et evolution a propos d'une serie de 118 patients. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervi-cofac 116: 351-357

Duncan HJ, Seiden AM (1995) Long-term follow-up of olfactory loss secondary to head trauma and upper respiratory tract infection. Arch Otolary-ngol Head Neck Surg 121: 1183-1187

Quint C et al (2002) The quinoxaline derivative caroverine in the treatment of sensorineural smell disorders: a proof-of-concept study. Acta Otolaryngol 122: 877-881

Hummel T, Heilmann S, Huttenbrink KB (2002) Lipoic acid in the treatment of smell dysfunction following viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. Laryngoscope 112: 2076-2080

Dhong HJ, Chung SK, Doty RL (1999) Estrogen protects against 3-methylindole-induced olfactory loss. Brain Res 824: 312-315 Hughes LF et al (2002) Effects of hormone replacement therapy on olfac4-tory sensitivity: cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Climacteric 5: 140150

Portier F et al (2000) Semiologie, etiologie et evolution des parosmies: a propos de 84 cas. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac 117: 12-18 Frasnelli J, Hummel T (2004) Olfactory dysfunction and daily life. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 5: 5

Legg JW (1873) A case of anosmia following a blow. Lancet 2: 659-660 Yousem DM et al (1999) Posttraumatic smell loss: relationship of psycho-physical tests and volumes of the olfactory bulbs and tracts and the temporal lobes. Acad Radiol 6: 264-272

Zusho H (1982) Posttraumatic anosmia. Arch Otolaryngol 108: 90-92 Frank Greiffenstein M, John Baker W, Gola T (2002) Brief report: anosmia and remote outcome in closed head injury. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 24: 705-709

Sumner D (1964) Post-traumatic anosmia. Brain 87: 107-120

Delank KW, Fechner G (1996) Zur Pathophysiologie der posttraumatischen

Riechstorungen. Laryngorhinootologie 75: 154-159

Fein BT, Kamin PB, Fein NN (1966) The loss of sense of smell in nasal allergy. Ann Allergy 24: 278-283

Doty RL (1997) Olfaction. Nasal Polyposis - An inflammatory disease and its treatement. In: Mygind N, Lildholdt T (eds) Munksgaard, Copenhagen, p 153-159

Landis BN et al (2003) Retronasal olfactory function in nasal polyposis. Laryngoscope 113: 1993-1997

Hotchkiss WT (1956) Influence of Prednisone on nasal polyposis with anosmia. Arch Otolaryngol 64: 478-479

Klimek L et al (1997) Olfactory function after microscopic endonasal surgery in patients with nasal polyps. Am J Rhinol 11: 251-255 Apter AJ et al (1995) Allergic rhinitis and olfactory loss. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 75: 311-316

Stuck BA et al (2003) Mometasone furoate nasal spray improves olfactory performance in seasonal allergic rhinitis. Allergy 58: 1195 Ansari KA, Johnson A (1975) Olfactory function in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Chron Dis 28: 493-497

Ward CD, Hess WA, Calne DB (1983) Olfactory impairment in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 33: 943-946

Doty RL, Deems D, Steller S (1988) Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: A general deficit unrelated to neurologic signs, disease stage, or disease duration. Neurology 38: 1237-1244

Sobel N et al (2001) An impairment in sniffing contributes to the olfactory impairment in Parkinson's disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 4154-4159 Barz S et al (1997) Chemosensory event-related potentials in response to tri-geminal and olfactory stimulation in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Neurology 49: 1424-1431

Hawkes CH, Shephard BC (1998) Olfactory evoked responses and identification tests in neurological disease. Ann NY Acad Sci 855: 608-615 Hawkes CH, Shephard BC, Daniel SE (1999) Is Parkinson's disease a primary olfactory disorder? QJM 92: 473-480

Hawkes C (2003) Olfaction in neurodegenerative disorder. Mov Disord 18: 364-372

Berendse HW et al (2001) Subclinical dopaminergic dysfunction in asymptomatic Parkinson's disease patients' relatives with a decreased sense of smell. Ann Neurol 50: 34-41

Sommer U et al (2004) Detection of presymptomatic Parkinson's disease: combination of olfactory tests, transcranial sonography, and 123 I-FP-CIT-SPECT. Mov Disord, in press

Muller A et al (2002) Olfactory function in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD): results from cross-sectional studies in IPD patients and long-term follow-up of de-novo IPD patients. J Neural Transm 109: 805-811 Heilmann S, Huettenbrink KB, Hummel T (2004) Local and systemic administration of corticosteroids in the treatment of olfactory loss. Am J Rhi-nol 18: 29-33

Jorgensen MB, Buch NH (1961) Studies on the sense of smell and taste in diabetics. Arch Otolaryngol 53: 539-545

Weinstock RS, Wright HN, Smith DU (1993) Olfactory dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Physiol Behav 53: 17-21

Le Floch JP et al (1993) Smell dysfunction and related factors in diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 16: 934-937

Doty RL (1986) Gender and endocrine-related influences on human olfactory perception. Clinical Measurement of Taste and Smell. In: Meiselman R (ed) MacMillan, New York, p 377-413

McConnell RJ et al (1975) Defects of taste and smell in patients with hypo-thyroidism. Am J Med 59: 354-364

Henkin RI, Bartter FC (1966) Studies on olfactory thresholds in normal man and in patients with adrenal cortical insufficiency: the role of adrenal cortical steroids and of serum sodium concentration. J Clin Invest 45: 1631-1639

Schiffman SS (1983) Taste and smell in disease (first of two parts). N Engl J Med 308: 1275-1279

Campanella G, Filla A, De Michele G (1978) Smell and taste acuity in epileptic syndromes. Eur Neurol 17: 136-141

Eskenazi B et al (1986) Odor perception in temporal lobe epilepsy patients with and without temporal lobectomy. Neuropsychologia p 553-562 Jones-Gotman M et al (1997) Contribution of medial versus lateral temporal-lobe structures to human odour identification. Brain 120: 18451856

Kohler CG et al (2001) Olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia and temporal lobe epilepsy. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 14: 83-88 Hummel T et al (1995) Chemosensory event-related potentials in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 36: 79-85

Schiffman SS (1983) Taste and smell in disease (second of two parts). N Engl J Med 308: 1337-1343

Henkin RI, Smith FR (1971) Hyposmia in acute viral hepatitis. Lancet 1: 823-826

Kleinschmidt EG, Kramp B, Schwager A (1976) Functional study on the sense of smell in patients with chronic liver disease. Z Gesamte Inn Med 31: 853-856

Reaich D (1997) Odour perception in chronic renal disease. Lancet 350: 1191 Adelman BT (1995) Altered taste and smell after anesthesia: cause and effect? Anesthesiology 83: 647-649

Kimmelman CP (1994) The risk to olfaction from nasal surgery. Laryngoscope 104: 981-988

Damm M et al (2003) Olfactory changes at threshold and suprathreshold levels following septoplasty with partial inferior turbinectomy. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 112: 91-97

Briner HR, Simmen D, Jones N (2003) Impaired sense of smell in patients with nasal surgery. Clin Otolaryngol 28: 417-419

Hastings L, Miller ML (1997) Olfactory loss to toxic exposure. Taste and smell disorders. In: Seiden AM (ed) Thieme, New York, p 88-106 Doty RL et al (2003) Influences of antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic drugs on the senses of taste and smell: a review. J Hypertens 21: 1805-1813 Kharoubi S (2003) Anosmie toxi-medicamenteuse a la nifedipine. Presse Med 32: 1269-1272

Levenson JL, Kennedy K (1985) Dysosmia, dysgeusia, and nifedipine. Ann Intern Med 102: 135-136

Welge-Luessen A, Wolfensberger M (2003) Reversible anosmia after amikacin therapy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 129: 1331-1333 Jafek BW et al (1990) Congenital anosmia. Ear Nose Throat J 69: 331-337 Abolmaali ND et al (2002) MR evaluation in patients with isolated anosmia since birth or early childhood. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 23: 157-164 Yousem DM et al (1996) MR evaluation of patients with congenital hypo-smia or anosmia. Am J Radiol 166: 439-443

Kallmann FJ, Schoenfeld WA, Barrera SE (1944) The genetic aspects of primary eunuchoidism. Am J Ment Defic 48: 203-236

Wustenberg EG et al (2001) Normosmie bei Kallmann Syndrom - Ein Fallbericht. Laryngorhinootologie 80: 85-89

Amoore JE (1991) Specific anosmias. Smell and taste in health and disease. In: Getchell TV et al (eds) Raven Press, New York, p 655-664 Kaufman MD, Lassiter KR, Shenoy BV (1988) Paroxysmal unilateral dysosmia: a cured patient. Ann Neurol 24: 450-451

Lanza DC, Kennedy DW (1997) Adult rhinosinusitis defined. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 117: S1-7

Togias A (1999) Mechanisms of nose-lung interaction. Allergy 54[Suppl] 57: 94-105

Stevens CN, Stevens MH (1985) Quantitative effects of nasal surgery on olfaction. Am J Otolaryngol 6: 264-267

Haddad FS et al (1985) Intracranial complications of submucous resection of the nasal septum. Am J Otolaryngol 6: 443-447

Gross-Isseroff R et al (1989) Olfactory function following late repair of choanal atresia. Laryngoscope 99: 1165-1166

203. Hosemann W et al (1993) Olfaction after endoscopic endonasal ethmoidec-tomy. Am J Rhinology 7: 11-15

204. Rowe-Jones JM, Mackay IS (1997) A prospective study of olfaction following endoscopic sinus surgery with adjuvant medical treatment. Clin Otolary-ngol 22: 377-381

205. Downey LL, Jacobs JB, Lebowitz RA (1996) Anosmia and chronic sinus disease. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 115: 24-28

206. Min YG et al (1995) Recovery of nasal physiology after functional endo-scopic sinus surgery: olfaction and mucociliary transport. ORL J Otorhino-laryngol Relat Spec 57: 264-268

207. Lee SH et al (2000) Olfactory mucosal findings in patients with persistent anosmia after endoscopic sinus surgery. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 109: 720-725

208. Jafek BW, Murrow B, Johnson EW (1994) Olfaction and endoscopic sinus surgery. Ear Nose Throat J 73: 548-552

209. Passagia JG et al (1999) Surgical approaches to the anterior fossa, and preservation of olfaction. Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg 25: 195-241

210. Spetzler RF et al (1993) Preservation of olfaction in anterior craniofacial approaches. J Neurosurg 79: 48-52

211. Suzuki J, Yoshimoto T, Mizoi K (1981) Preservation of the olfactory tract in bifrontal craniotomy for anterior communicating artery aneurysms, and the functional prognosis. J Neurosurg 54: 342-345

212. Dulguerov P, Allal AS, Calcaterra TC (2001) Esthesioneuroblastoma: a meta-analysis and review. Lancet Oncol 2: 683-690

213. Dias FL et al (2003) Patterns of failure and outcome in esthesioneuroblas-toma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 129: 1186-1192

214. Bakay L, Cares HL (1972) Olfactory meningiomas. Report on a series of twenty-five cases. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 26: 1-12

215. Welge-Luessen A et al (2001) Olfactory function in patients with olfactory groove meningioma. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 70: 218-221

216. Bonfils P, Corre FL, Biacabe B (1999) Semiologie et etiologie des anosmies: a propos de 306 patients. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac 116: 198-206

217. Costanzo RM, DiNardo LJ, Zasler ND (1995) Head injury and olfaction. Handbook of Olfaction and Gustation. In: Doty RL (ed) Marcel Dekker, New York, p 493-502

218. Murphy C, Doty RL, Duncan HJ (2003) Clinical disorders of olfaction. Handbook of olfaction and gustation. In: Doty RL (ed) Marcel Dekker, New York, p 461-478

219. Gradziadei PPC, Monti-Graziadei GA (1978) Continuous nerve cell renewal in the olfactory system. Handbook of sensory physiology, vol. IX. In: Jacob-son M (ed) Springer, Wien, New York, p 55

220. Hummel T et al (2004) Qualitative olfactory dysfunction: frequency and prognostic significance. Abstractbook AchemS p 89 (Poster 339)

221. Leopold DA et al (1991) Successful treatment of phantosmia with preservation of olfaction. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 117: 1402-1406

222. Leopold DA, Loehrl TA, Schwob JE (2002) Long-term follow-up of surgically treated phantosmia. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 128: 642-647

223. Markert JM, Hartshorn DO, Farhat SM (1993) Paroxysmal bilateral dysos-mia treated by resection of the olfactory bulbs. Surg Neurol 40: 160-163

224. Bonfils P et al (2004) Traitement chirurgical d'une parosmie post-rhinitique. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac 121: 47-50

225. Fong KJ et al (1999) Olfactory secretion and sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase: regulation by corticosteroids. Laryngoscope 109: 383-388

226. Golding-Wood DG et al (1996) The treatment of hyposmia with intranasal steroids. J Laryngol Otol 110: 132-135

227. Tos M et al (1998) Efficacy of an aqueous and a powder formulation of nasal budesonide compared in patients with nasal polyps. Am J Rhinol 12: 183189

228. Mott AE et al (1997) Topical corticosteroid treatment of anosmia associated with nasal and sinus disease. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 123: 367372

229. Stevens MH (2001) Steroid-dependent anosmia. Laryngoscope 111: 200-203

230. Mott AE, Leopold DA (1991) Disorders in taste and smell. Med Clin North Am 75: 1321-1353

231. Klimek L, Eggers G (1997) Olfactory dysfunction in allergic rhinitis is related to nasal eosinophilc inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 100: 159164

232. Jafek BW et al (1987) Steroid-dependent anosmia. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 113: 547-549

233. Heilmann S, Hüttenbrink KB, Hummel T (2004) Local and systemic administration of corticosteroids in the treatment of olfactory loss. Am J Rhinol 18: 29-33

234. Ikeda K et al (1995) Efficacy of systemic corticosteroid treatment for anosmia with nasal and paranasal sinus disease. Rhinology 33: 162-165

235. Meltzer EO et al (1998) Subjecive and objective assessments in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis: effects of therapy with mometasone furoate nasal spray. J Allergy Clin Immunol 102: 39-49

236. El Naggar M et al (1995) Effect of Beconase nasal spray on olfactory function in post-nasal polypectomy patients: a prospective controlled trial. J Otolaryngol 109: 941-944

237. Blomqvist EH et al (2003) Placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study evaluating the efficacy of fluticasone propionate nasal spray for the treatment of patients with hyposmia/anosmia. Acta Otolaryngol 123: 862868

238. Heilmann S et al (2004) Untersuchung der Wirksamkeit von systemischen bzw. topischen Corticoiden und Vitamin B bei Riechstörungen. Laryngo-Rhino-Otol 86: 1-6

239. Benninger MS et al (2004) Techniques of intranasal steroid use. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 130: 5-24

240. Hardy JG, Lee SW, Wilson CG (1985) Intranasal drug delivery by spray and drops. J Pharmacy Pharmacol 37: 294-297

Newman SP, Moren F, Clarke SW (1987) Deposition pattern from a nasal pump spray. Rhinology 25: 77-82

McGarry GW, Swan IR (1992) Endoscopic photographic comparison of drug delivery by ear-drops and by aerosol spray. Clinical Otolaryngology 17: 359-360

Parnes SM, Chuma AV (2000) Acute effects of antileukotrienes on sinonasal polyposis and sinusitis. Ear Nose Throat J 79: 18-20, 24-25 Bachmann G, Hommel G, Michel O (2000) Effect of irrigation of the nose with isotonic salt solution on adult patients with chronic paranasal sinus disease. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 257: 537-541

Rundles W (1946) Prognosis in the neurologic manifestations of pernicious anemia. Blood 1: 209-219

Tanaka O, Mukaino Y (1999) The effect of auricular acupuncture on olfactory acuity. Am J Chin Med 27: 19-24

Stevenson DD et al (1996) Aspirin desensitization treatment of aspirinsensitive patients with rhinosinusitis-asthma: long-term outcomes. J Allergy Clin Immunol 98: 751-758

Moran DT et al (1992) Ultrastructural histopathology of human olfactory dysfunction. Microsc Res Tech 23: 103-110

Yamagishi M, Fujiwara M, Nakamura H (1994) Olfactory mucosal findings and clinical course in patients with olfactory disorders following upper respiratory viral infection. Rhinology 32: 113-118

Henkin RI et al (1976) A double-blind study of the effects of zinc sulfate on taste and smell dysfunction. Am J Med Sci 272: 285-299 Yee KK, Rawson NE (2000) Retinoic acid enhances the rate of olfactory recovery after olfactory nerve transection. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 124: 129132

Hendriks APJ (1988) Olfactory dysfunction. Rhinology 26: 229-251 Nordin S et al (1996) Prevalence and assessment of qualitative olfactory dysfunction in different age groups. Laryngoscope 106: 739-744 Leopold D (1995) Distorted olfactory perception. Handbook of olfaction and gustation. In: Doty RL (ed) Marcel Dekker Inc. New York, p 441-454 Jafek BW, Murrow B, Linschoten M (2000) Evaluation and treatment of anosmia. Curr Opin Otol Head Neck Surg 8: 63-67

Reljanovic M et al (1999) Treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy with the antioxidant thioctic acid (alpha-lipoic acid): a two year multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial (ALADIN II). Alpha Lipoic Acid in Diabetic Neuropathy. Free Radic Res 31: 171-179 Packer L, Kraemer K, Rimbach G (2001) Molecular aspects of lipoic acid in the prevention of diabetes complications. Nutrition 17: 888-895 Hounsom L et al (1998) A lipoic acid-gamma linolenic acid conjugate is effective against multiple indices of experimental diabetic neuropathy. Diabe-tologia 41: 839-843

Hounsom L et al (2001) Oxidative stress participates in the breakdown of neuronal phenotype in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Diabetologia 44: 424-428

260. Garrett NE et al (1997) alpha-Lipoic acid corrects neuropeptide deficits in diabetic rats via induction of trophic support. Neurosci Lett 222: 191-194

261. Coppey LJ et al (2001) Effect of antioxidant treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats on endoneurial blood flow, motor nerve conduction velocity, and vascular reactivity of epineurial arterioles of the sciatic nerve. Diabetes 50: 1927-1937

262. van Dam PS et al (2001) Glutathione and alpha-lipoate in diabetic rats: nerve function, blood flow and oxidative state. Eur J Clin Invest 31: 417-424

263. Lynch MA (2001) Lipoic acid confers protection against oxidative injury in non-neuronal and neuronal tissue. Nutr Neurosci 4: 419-438

264. Seiden AM (1997) The intial assessment of patients with taste and smell disorders. Taste and smell disorders. In: Seiden AM (ed) Thieme, New York, p 4-19

265. Garrett-Laster M, Russell RM, Jacques PF (1984) Impairment of taste and olfaction in patients with cirrhosis: the role of vitamin A. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 38: 203-214

266. Henkin RI (1994) Drug-induced taste and smell disorders. Incidence, mechanisms and management related primarily to treatment of sensory receptor dysfunction. Drug Saf 11: 318-377

267. Ackerman BH, Kasbekar N (1997) Disturbances of taste and smell induced by drugs. Pharmacotherapy 17: 482-496

268. Hudry J, Perrin F, Ryvlin P, Mauguiere F, Royet J-P (2003) Olfactory short-term memory and related amygdala recordings in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain 126: 1851-1863

Offprint from

Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery, Vol. 30 Edited by J.D. Pickard

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2005 - Printed in Austria - Not for Sale

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

This guide will help millions of people understand this condition so that they can take control of their lives and make informed decisions. The ebook covers information on a vast number of different types of neuropathy. In addition, it will be a useful resource for their families, caregivers, and health care providers.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment