A programme ends another begins

Testing on the first Soviet spacecraft, named Vostok, began in 1960 on an accelerated schedule. NASA had announced plans for a suborbital Mercury flight in early 1961. To Sergei Korolev that meant the Soviet Union had to upstage the Americans by launching a manned Vostok flight before the end of 1960 [10]. The two suborbital dog flights in June 1960 helped to perfect the life-support systems to be used on the manned Vostok capsule. But, they also put a close to 9 years of suborbital dog launches. They had helped to bring the Soviet space programme from the excitement of that first biological launch to the edge of manned space flight. Scarcely 10 months would pass

This rocket launched at 8:06. The clock shows 8:07. The dogs Pestraya and Belyanka are feeling the "G-force" press against them as their rocket climbs to an altitude of 280 miles in 1958. (Photo: authors' collections)

On 15 June 1960, on one of the last of the suborbital flights, the dogs Otvazhnaya and Malek shared their capsule with a rabbit named Marfusha. (Photo: authors' collections)

between the last suborbital dog flight and the historic space voyage of Yuri Gagarin, in April 1961.

The only thing yet required to bridge that 10-month gap would be a series of canine orbital flights that once again called for animals to pioneer the way for humans.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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