This is the companion diagram to the previous illustration, created to assist the learner in placing the brain and its various divisions in a three-dimensional construct.
This is a semi-anatomic view of the brain from the lateral perspective. The front pole of the brain is on the left side of this illustration; the posterior pole is on the right side. The structures included are:
• Cerebral hemispheres: The extensive cerebral hemisphere of one side is seen, with the top edge of the other hemisphere in view (this same view is presented in Figure 14). The lower part of the hemisphere seen on this view is the temporal lobe.
• Lateral ventricles: The shape of the ventricles within the hemispheres is now clearly seen (like a reversed letter C), with its continuation into the temporal lobe. The ventricle of the other hemisphere is seen as a "shadow." (A similar view is presented in Figure 20B.)
• Basal ganglia: The three parts of the basal ganglia are represented in this view. The caudate (head, body, and tail) follows the ventricle. The putamen can be seen from the lateral perspective, but the globus pallidus is hidden from view because it lies medial to the putamen; its position is indicated by the dashed ellipse. (A similar view is presented in Figure 25.) The two nuclei together are called the lentiform or lenticular nucleus.
One additional nucleus belonging, by definition, with the basal ganglia is seen within the temporal lobe — the amygdala. It will be discussed with the limbic system (in Section D).
• Diencephalon: The thalamus of one side can be visualized from this perspective, almost completely hidden from view by the putamen and the globus pallidus, the lentiform nucleus. The third ventricle is seen just behind it, occupying the midline (see Figure 25).
• Brainstem: The upper parts of the brainstem, namely the midbrain and upper pons, cannot be seen from this view of the brain, but their position is shown as if one could "see through" the temporal lobe. The lower part of the pons and the medulla may be seen. The shape of the fourth ventricle within the brainstem should also be noted.
• Cerebellum: Only the lower portion of one of the hemispheres of the cerebellum can be seen from this lateral perspective, below the cerebral hemispheres.
The brainstem and cerebellum occupy the posterior cranial fossa of the skull.
• Spinal cord: The spinal cord continues from the bottom of the medulla. A view similar to this is seen in a neuroradiologic image in Figure 3.
Note to the Learner: These overview illustrations are only sometimes referred to in this atlas but should be consulted as often as necessary while developing a three-dimensional understanding of the various parts of the brain.
F = Frontal lobe P = Parietal lobe T = Temporal lobe O = Occipital lobe
Ch = Caudate head Cb = Caudate body Ct = Caudate tail P = Putamen GP = Globus pallidus
LV = Lateral ventricle
3 = 3rd ventricle 4 = 4th ventricle
A = Amygdata
D = Diencephalon (thalamus) C = Cerebellum
Sc = Spinal cord Cc = Central canal
FIGURE OL: Overview Diagram — Lateral View
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